III. Sailors, Marines, and Civilians:
The Cornerstone of Success
America’s naval forces are combat-ready largely due to the dedication and motivation of
individual Sailors, Marines, and civilians. Developing and retaining quality people is
vital to our continued success and is among the Department’s biggest challenges.
Meeting these challenges is essential to long-term effectiveness. But, with continued
fiscal austerity and constrained funding, any increased investment in personnel programs
will likely come at the expense of future modernization. However, as it is so often said,
our people are our most valuable resource. It is with this in mind that we must continue
to put a premium on recruiting, retaining, and training the best people our country has to
Core Values: Honor, Courage, and Commitment
The Department of the Navy’s core values of honor, courage, and commitment are the
very fabric of our naval character. It is the ethos of who we are and how we conduct
ourselves on a daily basis. From these principles we uphold the traditions of the naval profession and shape the service’s standards for moral conduct. As warfighters, we wield destructive power and must often act independently on the
battlefield to judge situations and show the highest caliber of moral leadership.
Therefore, it is essential that core values be an integral part of Sailors’ or Marines’
leadership training and professional development throughout their careers.
Sailors, Marines and civilians possess a strong personal commitment to these core values
and are relied upon to uphold the highest standards of professional and personal conduct.
Thus, ethical awareness and adherence to core values is at the forefront of every decision,
Recruiting America’s Best and Brightest
At the end of FY 98, the Navy’s end strength was 381,502 active duty and 94,294
reserve. Active duty and Reserve Marines numbered 173,142 and 40,842, respectively.
Department-wide civilian staffing stood at 207,782. The downsizing of the early/mid-1990s is nearly complete, and the Department of the Navy is working to ensure that the
nation’s youth are aware of the diverse and rewarding career possibilities that naval
service offers to America’s best and brightest. Naval service stimulates and challenges
young people while providing a solid foundation of “high-tech” training, life skills, and
leadership experience at a relatively early age. Although the Navy and Marine Corps
both met officer and enlisted recruiting goals for their respective Reserve forces,
recruiting remains a challenge for the active duty Navy forces. Increasing college
attendance, historically low unemployment, and prolonged economic growth all combine
to compete with naval recruiters for the limited pool of qualified enlistees.
The Navy experienced a recruiting shortfall of 6,892 Sailors in FY 98. Unfortunately,
FY 99 is equally challenging with the same competitive factors. In response, we
developed a strategy to address this environment and help avoid an accession shortfall in
FY 99. First, we boosted the number of recruiters by 25 percent, from 3600 in 1998, to
over 4500 by March 1999. Next, our advertising campaign emphasizes that the Navy
represents a great career opportunity. We have further empowered our recruiters by
increasing recruiting incentives, including Enlistment Bonuses, Navy College Funds, and
a series of specific bonuses and contracts targeted to attract general detail (GENDET)
Sailors. Shorter enlistment contracts may also help young people unsure whether the
Navy is the right choice for them. Likewise, we included a legislative request to increase
the maximum enlistment bonus from $12,000 to $20,000, which should help attract
Additionally, the Navy increased the maximum allowable enlistment percentage of non-
High School diploma graduates (NHSDGs) from five percent to the DoD limit of 10
percent earlier this year. Although a high school diploma is an important validation of
ability to succeed, it is not the “be-all” or “end-all” of a potential recruit’s measure of
worth. This initiative authorizes the recruitment of up to an additional 2600 boot camp
entrants when their work experience and above average test scores identify them as
“Proven Performers” and justifies their admission. Additionally, we will provide highly
effective training through our Personal Academic Capacity Enhancement Program for
personnel at boot camp requiring remedial instruction. We recognize that recruits
without high school diplomas have historically failed to complete recruit training at a rate
of about 10% greater than those with diplomas. However, this metric is more than offset
by the fact that non-diploma graduates who complete boot camp have higher retention
rates and perform as well or better than their peers in the fleet.
Despite the impact of a strong civilian economy, the Marine Corps met all of its
recruiting goals in FY 98, extending an unbroken string of recruiting success — both in
quantity and quality — to 41 consecutive months. To continue to recruit quality men and
women, the Marine Corps maintains an effective and award-winning advertising
program. As young Americans grow less inclined toward military service, new
approaches and more resources must be applied to recruiting. To generate awareness and
quality recruiting leads, and to make the Marine Corps more attractive, the Marine Corps
expanded the use of high-profile marketing opportunities. The Marine Corps is also
developing an Internet-based system to bolster both initial and follow-up recruiting
effectiveness. Likewise, a CD-ROM product is under development that gives
comprehensive Military Occupational Speciality information to help recruits make
informed career decisions before departing for boot camp.
Individual Sailors and Marines are the foundation of the total force. Caring for them and
their families is central to personnel retention and the overall readiness of the Navy-Marine Corps team. Decreasing quality of life, family separation, pay disparities with the civilian community, lower advancement opportunity, erosion of other benefits, and a strong civilian economy adversely
affect retention of Navy and Marine Corps personnel.
Enlisted Retention: Overall, enlisted first-term retention during 1998 was approximately
32% for the Navy, which is about 6% below the retention level to support a steady-state Navy force level. Overall enlisted first-term retention for the Marine Corps was 21.8%, which is the minimum rate to sustain the Marine Corps force structure. A combination of initiatives, such as increasing the
Selective Reenlistment Bonus (SRB) from $45,000 to $60,000, will focus on boosting retention figures. The Navy’s ongoing commitment to fund the personnel account adequately addresses lingering concerns about timely permanent change-of-station moves, bonus payments, and advancement opportunities. In addition, the Chief of Naval Operations’ initiative to reduce the inter-deployment personnel tempo will give Sailors more time at home. Despite these efforts, an across-the-board increase of military compensation is needed to stem the tide of declining accessions and insufficient
Other initiatives to enhance personnel compensation were included in the FY 98 National
Defense Authorization Act. Housing allowance reform, to be phased in over six years,
will first stabilize and then reduce the percentage of housing
costs absorbed by individual Sailors and Marines. Subsistence allowance reform will
correct pay inequities among enlisted people and will tie increases in this allowance to a
credible food-cost index. The Department enhanced family separation pay, hazardous
duty pay, and overseas tour extension bonuses to alleviate hardship situations. In order to
offer our quality people a
competitive standard of living, the Department needs strong and continuing support from
the Congress for significant increases in military compensation.
To complement these financial initiatives, the Department of the Navy is placing a
greater emphasis on the way we work. For example, the Department is developing a new
Smart Work program to provide our Sailors and Marines with the best tools and
equipment possible, which will help to reduce the number of hours our enlisted personnel
work while increasing the quality of their work. Some examples include:
- developing and procuring a new type of watertight door that will replace the high-
maintenance type that consumes significant maintenance man-hours
- acquiring “top-of-the-shelf” basic equipment that will make scraping and painting
- Developing paint for the Fleet that is more resistant to deterioration and yet does
not affect the environment, to help reduce maintenance burdens and improve working
Officer Retention: During the past few years, reduced force levels partially offset the
adverse impact of Navy officer community shortages, which, nonetheless, were
exacerbated by high-tempo worldwide operations. While the Marine Corps is meeting its
end strength requirements and will for the foreseeable future, retention in aviation
specialties is a concern. Unfortunately, our Armed Forces are nearing their lower end-
strength goals at a time when the robust civilian market offers strong employment
alternatives to our personnel. Inadequate retention only increases the personal sacrifices
demanded of our remaining people as sea tours are lengthened due to operational
requirements and commitments. Positive changes are needed immediately to help stem
the loss of highly skilled and motivated people before current readiness is more adversely
affected. Retention also must be improved to meet officer manning requirements
particularly in Navy and Marine Corps aviation, nuclear power, surface warfare, and
• Aviation: Navy pilot retention decreased to 39% in FY 97 and further declined to 32%
in FY 98. This trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future, and pilot retention
already falls short of the 35% aggregate level required to fill critical department head and
flight leader positions. Naval Flight Officer retention is also declining, with aggregate
retention in early 1999 at the minimally acceptable level of 38%. While continuation of
these mid-level officers represents our greatest retention challenge, there has also been an
increase in resignations of more senior aviators, particularly due to intense competition
from private industry. The Marine Corps is also experiencing aviation retention
challenges, especially for fixed-wing aviators. The Navy is developing compensation
proposals to address Service-specific retention shortfalls and regain the high ground in
the retention battle. Relief from current Title 37 legislative constraints will enable us to
continue developing new compensation programs and more efficiently apply limited
resources where and when they are needed. Aviation Career Continuation Pay (ACCP) is
one such initiative that would mark a departure from the unsuccessful retention programs
of the past. Tied directly to force structure, ACCP would meet the retention challenge at
every critical point throughout an aviation career by rewarding aviators for superior
performance and increased responsibility.
• Nuclear Power: The success of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion program is a direct result
of quality people, rigorous selection and training, and high standards. FY 98 retention for
submarine officers was 27% and 21% for nuclear-trained surface warfare officers, which
is currently adequate because of our post-Cold War downsizing. However, nuclear officer
accessions and retention remain below the required level to sustain the future force
structure. Retention rates must improve to 38% for submarine officers and 24% for
nuclear-trained surface warfare officers by FY 01 to meet steady-state manning
requirements. In its present form, the Nuclear Officer Incentive Pay program remains the
surest and most cost-effective means of meeting current and future manning
requirements. The authorization requested to extend the program and increase pay
limitations will provide the Department of the Navy with sufficient program flexibility to
address current and future retention challenges.
• Surface Warfare: Despite a large reduction in the number of ships since the Cold War
“high-water mark” in the mid-1980s, the Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) community is experiencing difficulty retaining enough senior lieutenants and junior lieutenant commanders to meet department head requirements. Current retention in SWO community is 25% against a manning retention requirement of 38%. To reverse the SWO retention trend, Navy leadership is addressing waterfront quality-of-life concerns and has proposed Surface Warfare Officer Continuation Pay (SWOCP). This
initiative would pay surface warfare-qualified officers up to $50,000 to remain in the community through their tenth year of commissioned service.
• Special Warfare: Historically, officer retention in Naval Special Warfare (NSW,
commonly referred to as SEALs — for Sea, Air, Land forces) was among the highest in the Navy. Since 1996, however, the annual number of resignations has risen dramatically. The SEAL retention rate at the critical seven-year point has fallen to 58.2% from historical levels of greater than 80%. The Navy is attempting to address SEAL junior officer retention problems in several ways including proposed increased incentives. These incentives include a proposal for NSW officer continuation pay — targeting officers with 6-14 years of service — and proposed legislative relief from the restriction on drawing more than one Hazardous Duty Incentive Pay. Additionally, the Naval Special Warfare community leadership is conducting a thorough evaluation of its organization in an effort to reduce personnel tempo, improve job satisfaction, develop a mentoring program, and expand postgraduate education opportunities.
A Comprehensive, Competitive Military Compensation Strategy
Navy leadership is fully cognizant that we need a multi-faceted approach to be successful
in improving personnel readiness. While there is no one remedy to this complex problem, a boost to military compensation is fundamental to a long-range solution.
Therefore, we strongly endorse the DoD compensation triad (basic pay increase of 4.4 percent in FY 00 and 3.9 percent each year through FY 05, pay table reform to recognize and reward performance, and repeal of the Military Retirement Reform Act of 1986 (Redux) as an excellent step toward addressing pay gap and compensation concerns.
While the compensation triad will begin to address our recruiting and retention concerns,
it will not ensure adequate retention in many of our undermanned, highly skilled, warfare
specialties. Historically, targeted bonuses have proven highly effective and very cost
efficient in attacking these retention problem areas. This year, we plan to make greater
use of this proven strategy. As discussed in the section on Recruiting and Retention, our
FY 00 Authorization Act request seeks congressional support for several special and pay
incentives and bonuses to deal with key personnel problem areas.
Long-term savings and financial security for our Sailors and Marines can help improve
recruiting and retention. Therefore, in addition to the DoD
compensation triad, we believe that a 401K-type payroll savings plan would pay
significant dividends in providing our Sailors and Marines an uncomplicated, low initial
investment means of establishing financial security. An important program that supports
these goals is the Uniformed Services Payroll Savings Plan (USPSP), a tax-deferred long-
term savings program that would authorize service members to contribute up to 5% of
basic pay, with no government matching funds. It would be managed by the Federal
Thrift Investment Board (FTIB), which already oversees the Civil Service Thrift Savings
Plan, and would be charged with professional oversight and participant education for the
Navy and Marine Corps.
Strongly supported by the Department of the Navy, the establishment of a USPSP would
be a significant step in addressing continuing congressional concerns that young men and
women joining the Services have inadequate knowledge and understanding of skills
required for personal financial management and fiscal responsibility. While the
Department has implemented personal financial management programs that provide
excellent access to information for managing a Sailor’s or Marine’s financial future, these
programs are only a first step and should be complemented by a Defense Department-
sponsored savings plan.
Equal Opportunity/Diversity: The Department of the Navy remains committed to
development of Navy and Marine Corps forces that reflect the demographics of American
society. Both Services traditionally emphasize accessions to diversify the military
population. Last year some modest gains were made in minority recruitment. The
Services also have increased efforts to retain minorities. Mentoring programs are also
being developed for the benefit of all Sailors and Marines. In addition, a cadre of naval
leaders is being assigned to a Standing Committee for Minority Affairs to provide
experience and guidance on issues of diversity and equal opportunity.
Quality of Life: The availability of effective Quality of Life (QoL) programs and services
offer Sailors and Marines peace of mind no matter where they are stationed or deployed,
and contribute greatly to retention and readiness. The
four major goals for QoL include adequate and fair compensation, appropriate bachelor
and family housing, access to high-quality health care, and effective programs for
community and family support.
The Department of the Navy has established QoL Master Plans to provide standards for
QoL programs and services. Through this effort, the Department provides an array of
QoL programs that are an essential component of the career benefits package. Many of
these programs cultivate and reinforce Department of Navy core values, while others
provide vital community support services. Of special note is a $77 million increase in the
Voluntary Education (VOLED) program throughout the FY 00 FYDP. Recent studies
show a strong relationship between the use of VOLED and increased retention.
Additionally, LIFELines, a revolutionary, web-based approach to QoL support services
education and delivery, will be inaugurated in early 1999 to provide more effective
access to these services.
In the execution of its QoL Master Plan, the Marine Corps has revolutionized its
approach to the delivery of critical QoL programs by merging Morale, Welfare and
Recreation (MWR) and Human Resources (HR) programs into the Personal and Family
Readiness Division. The Personal and Family Readiness model creates a strong
advocacy voice for quality of life and establishes a proactive, prevention-based focus.
The “One Corps, One Standard” goal is accomplished by a variety of initiatives that
address the family, youth activities, and physical fitness. A premier example of a
prevention-oriented program is Semper Fit, which promotes
the personal readiness of Marines and healthy lifestyles in families by providing a team
of fitness, medical, and education counselors.
Housing: Ensuring that America’s Sailors, Marines, and their families are adequately
housed in the local community or in military housing is a top QoL issue. New initiatives
are underway in housing allowance reform, family housing, and bachelor housing. The
newly implemented Basic Allowance for Housing (BAH) system, which is to be phased
in over a six-year time frame, will provide allowances that more closely match the actual
housing costs of the service member.
In addition, the Department will use Public Private Venture (PPV) initiatives to meet its
future housing needs. The Navy is implementing plans to privatize housing at 16
different locations that target more than 29,000 family housing units. In a similar
fashion, the Marine Corps is pursuing privatization at nine locations that include more
than 8,000 family housing units.
PPVs have become the first choice to accomplish whole-house revitalization or
replacement of existing homes. Effective use of PPVs allows the Department to increase
the number and improve the quality of housing. In areas where analysis of economic,
quality, and market factors demonstrate that a PPV is not feasible, more traditional means
of meeting our requirements will be employed. Privatization allows the Services to enter
business agreements with the private sector to revitalize or replace existing housing, build
new units to meet the additional needs of the Service, and maintain the inventory.
The Department is similarly committed to improving the Quality of Life for our single
Sailors and Marines through the elimination of inadequate barracks and the achievement
of a higher standard of living. As currently programmed, the Navy will eliminate all
community restrooms by FY 08
and attain a seven-year replacement cycle for all barracks furnishings by FY 03. The
Marine Corps will completely replace inadequate barracks by FY 05, eliminate all
barracks maintenance and repair backlogs by FY 04 and reach a seven-year replacement
cycle for barracks furnishings by FY 02.
Protecting the lives of Sailors and Marines and preserving valuable material assets are
critical benchmarks in ensuring that America’s naval forces remain operationally ready to
meet their daunting global commitments.
One of the major innovations developed and adopted by the Navy and Marine Corps is
the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). Recognizing that
human error continues to be the leading cause of accidents, this analytical process
provides the first step in the Operational Risk Management (ORM) process — hazard
identification. This new process of analysis better focuses intervention strategies at the
root causes, and is designed to help Sailors and Marines identify and eliminate or reduce
The Chief of Naval Operations and the Commandant of the Marine Corps continue to
move forward with ORM at all levels. The Naval Safety Center has conducted eight
organizational level “Train the Trainer” courses and developed a new ORM training
course for fleet staffs. The Navy has also incorporated ORM into the Leadership
Training Continuum. ORM is used by the Fleet to throughout the Inter-Deployment
Training Cycle (IDTC) identify and quantify risk and create more dedicated unit-training
time. Continued emphasis by leaders at all levels throughout the Navy and Marine Corps
has made safety awareness part of the Department’s culture.
Another significant risk-management tool entered the Fleet Marine Forces in April 1998,
when the computer-based Squadron Assistance/Risk Assessment (SARA) software
program was fielded for every Marine Corps squadron. SARA is a unit-level risk
management and flight-scheduling tool, designed to assist military aviation organizations
in conducting daily activities. SARA facilitates daily scheduling, accumulates unit data,
and analyzes aircrew risk factors based on aircrew qualifications. In July 1998, the Joint
Service Safety Chiefs endorsed SARA and recommended funding for continued
development, product support, and possible use of SARA by all U.S. Armed Services.
Navy Medicine is committed to delivering world-class health care to the Navy-Marine
Corps team, its retirees, and their families. Operational medical units, such as hospital
ships and fleet hospitals, are capable of providing state-of-the-art health services
throughout the world. On a smaller scale, a lighter and more flexible rapid response
capability is being developed. Lastly, preventive
medicine — health education, reducing injuries, encouraging healthy lifestyles — has been
given priority because it is key to sustaining a fit and healthy fighting force.
TRICARE: The foundation of our health care system is TRICARE — Department of
Defense’s triple option managed health care program. In regions where TRICARE was
established early and is now mature, it has improved access and uniformity of benefits
while ensuring a high level of medical readiness. In regions where TRICARE has only
recently started up, there have been some growing pains. Because TRICARE introduced
some fundamental changes in how beneficiaries receive care, the Office of the Secretary
of Defense and the Services continue to address problem areas in implementing the
program. The Department of the Navy is committed to making TRICARE work and will
ensure that its beneficiaries continue to receive the finest health care possible.
Retiree Medical Care: Another important focus for the Department is improving access to
medical care for Medicare-eligible beneficiaries. The TRICARE Senior Prime demonstration project now being implemented at the San Diego Naval Medical Center, offers some encouraging opportunities for improved health care for retirees. Other promising methods to mitigate the loss of medical benefits for retired members and their families at age 65 are under evaluation.
Medical Innovation: Navy clinicians and researchers are leveraging technology advances
and developing processes to improve medical care. In addition, telemedicine is now
being used to provide better access to specialized treatments for both patients and
providers. The use of telemedicine provides operational and remote units a medical
force-multiplier by keeping Sailors and Marines on station, while maintaining direct
contact with designated specialists. The Navy is also streamlining medical operations by
working closely with the other Services and the Department of Veterans Affairs to
integrate health care services better and avoid duplication.
The Department is working with the Department of Defense to establish the Federal
Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP) to provide medical care for up to 66,000
retired Service members and their dependents. The demonstration program will be
offered at naval hospitals in Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, and Camp Pendleton,
California, starting January 1, 2000. DoD is planning two additional demonstration
programs, the TRICARE Senior Supplement program and an expanded pharmacy
benefits program for Medicare-eligible persons over age 65 (mail order pharmacy
benefit), as mandated by the FY 99 DoD Authorization Act.
Moreover, the Navy’s research programs are internationally recognized as being at the
forefront of DNA vaccine technology, immunobiology, and hearing conservation. The
Navy will continue its medical research initiatives for the benefit of our personnel, and
make results of our research available to citizens everywhere.
Revolution in Training: Educating Today’s Force
The Department needs a potent Navy-Marine Corps team capable of responding to increasingly diverse and sophisticated operating environments. Tomorrow’s force must adapt to decentralized operations, smaller crews, increasingly sophisticated and lethal weapon systems, expectations of precise execution, proliferation of asymmetric threats, and unpredictable environments. Satisfying these needs demands a highly trained, broadly educated, and exceedingly proficient core of individuals molded into cohesive teams to perform a wide variety of missions. Intensive training and education are central to the continuing success of our naval forces into the 21st Century.
The Naval Services are committed to training that emulates the operational environment
and instills the warrior’s ethos of sacrifice, endurance, teamwork, and dedication. In this
regard, the Department of the Navy is instituting fundamental changes to the way we
train by focusing on the following objectives: reducing the infrastructure cost of training
and education; increasing personnel readiness; improving quality of life by increasing
time in homeport; and making training an ongoing priority for every Sailor and Marine.
The current training infrastructure is being modernized and made more efficient to take
advantage of a host of new technologies. Investments in training technologies, focused
curricula, modeling and simulation, and a shift toward increased training in an
operational setting will better support the preparation of today’s Sailor and Marine. The
net results will be an enhanced ability to teach a broad foundation of knowledge, an
increased speed of learning, improved realism of training scenarios, access to special
situational knowledge, and a focused remediation in order to minimize attrition.
The Department also recognizes that the demands of the 21st Century will challenge their training continuum. Accordingly, the Service has embarked on a new Training
Modernization Initiative that will provide our operating forces with trained Marines in a shorter period of time than the current training pipeline. The primary focus of the Training Modernization Initiative is to identify core competencies that contribute to mission accomplishment for each rating and Military Occupational Speciality (MOS). We
will then infuse technology into institutional training for core competencies and provide the proper mix of distance and resident learning for core plus competencies. Our plan is to reduce the length of formal institutional training, teach more courses per year, and provide training to Sailors and Marines when and where required. Constrained resources require leveraging live training opportunities, while remaining within operational and personnel tempo constraints. Limited range and training areas, reduced steaming days and flight hours, environmental restrictions, and constrained budgets increasingly restrict operational training opportunities. The importance of “Train Hard, Train Fast, Train
Often, Train First” cannot be overemphasized, especially as the Navy-Marine Corps team will continue to be the “force-of-choice” for forward presence, peacetime engagement, crisis response, and many of the conflicts that are sure to come in the future.
Critical to overcoming some of these constraints are some simulation initiatives. Although not a complete solution, simulation offers a way to overcome many of these obstacles and use technological advances to present more realistic training. Combining simulation with live training opportunities overcomes range and target limitations, enhances the realism of the training scenario, improves after-action review and objective evaluation, and supports tactical decision making and mission rehearsal/planning. The Navy and Marine Corps will continue to develop modeling and simulation capabilities to enhance operational training at home and on deployment.
Basic Training: Initial training for officer and enlisted personnel must prepare them to
handle increasingly diverse operational environments — from Arctic and desert wastes to
urban “canyons” and labyrinths. Decentralized operations, increasing weapons lethality,
asymmetric threats, and complex and varied environments require innovative and
resourceful individuals capable of making timely, effective decisions under pressure.
The focus on building strong foundations in character, integrity, and leadership during
recruit training and initial officer training lies at the heart of a career-long continuum of
education. The updated Battle Stations in Navy recruit training and the Crucible in
Marine Corps recruit training are dedicated to instilling a common set of core values,
overcoming mental and physical challenges, and fostering unit cohesion and teamwork.
Battle Stations and the Crucible were specifically designed to provide a defining moment
in the transformation of young men and
women into Sailors and Marines.
The Navy and Marine Corps design basic training to best meet the needs of their
respective operational environments and missions. The Navy conducts basic training in a
gender-integrated manner, while the Marine Corps is gender-segregated. The Department
of the Navy believes strongly that each Service should retain the flexibility to structure its
training to satisfy the specific and sometimes unique needs of that Service.
Advanced Military Education: Integration of Professional Military Education (PME) and
leadership training with tactical and strategic warfare education throughout a naval
officer’s career is essential in meeting the Department of
the Navy’s mission. Providing advanced education opportunities for Navy and Marine
Corps officers is critically important as the Services transition to more complex network
centric warfare and operational maneuver doctrines and supporting tactics, techniques,
and procedures. Education in strategic, operational, and tactical levels of warfare is being
strengthened to prepare officers to integrate their understanding of the wide range of 21st
Century naval warfare. Expansion of off-campus professional military education
opportunities, development of distributive learning options for graduate education, and
modernization of advanced education labs and libraries increase
flexibility in critical education areas for tomorrow’s leaders. Implementation of the new
Operational Planner course at the Naval War College highlights the Navy’s commitment
to producing astute tacticians and leaders.
Furthermore, the Navy has implemented its Foreign Area Officer (FAO) program, which
combines formal education with overseas assignments in an effort to develop a cadre of
regional experts. These area specialists are essential to furthering the nation’s
The Marine Corps Total Force Distance Learning program is forging a worldwide
network of satellite campuses to make continuing education accessible for everyone. The
Marine Corps University (MCU) improved its approach to PME
through distance learning by establishing the College of Continuing Education (CCE) in
1997. Employing the higher education resources of the MCU, the CCE improves
traditional correspondence-based distance education programs in conjunction with the
Marine Corps Institute, while leveraging multimedia technology, such as the Marine
Corps Satellite Education Network, to improve course delivery. In addition, the Marine
Corps makes extensive use of programs like the MAGTF Staff Planning Program
(MSTP). MSTP is an instructor and evaluation cell that travels to respective Division-
equivalent and above commands to train and educate commanders and their staffs in
operational planning and execution.
Managing our Civilian Workforce
Civilians make up about one-third of the Department’s people and are essential members
of the Navy-Marine Corps team. Recent efforts to train and maintain a pool of well-
qualified employees include better training opportunities for
junior employees and new civilian performance appraisals that emphasize incentive
awards. The Department also has hosted a series of successful
civilian recruitment programs throughout the country, which brought Navy and Marine
Corps activities together with civilian college students. In addition, the Department
sponsored special engineering and science residential programs, to expose outstanding
high school and college students to Navy and Marine Corps technical missions and
There is growing concern about the impact that such issues as Base Operating Support
regionalization, claimant consolidation, and outsourcing will have on the civilian
workforce. A generally shrinking workforce does not generate
enough new people to replace the Department’s aging scientists, engineers, and senior
managers. Without careful management of retirements and hirings, significant gaps in
experience can occur. Accordingly, we have sharpened our focus on succession planning
to ensure that the necessary civilian expertise is available for continuity, consistency, and
Civilian Leadership Development Program: The Department of the Navy’s Civilian
Leadership Development Initiative provides opportunities for employees to enhance their
competitiveness for higher level positions. Several civilian leadership and management
programs including the Defense Leadership and Management Program, the Senior
Executive Fellows Program (SEF) at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, and the Department of the Navy’s Brookings Institute course, provide significant opportunities for development. The curriculum in each of these programs include rigorous graduate-level coursework, rotational assignments, and Professional Military Education (PME). The long-term goal is to sharpen civilian leadership skills, increase experience levels, and enhance understanding of the missions of the Departments of Defense and Navy.
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