V. Technology for Tomorrow

The Navy and Marine Corps’ strategic concepts papers ...From the Sea and Forward...From The Sea sharpened the focus of naval forces to emphasize operations in the littorals and the requirement to project decisive power and directly influence actions ashore — anywhere, anytime. Events of the past decade demonstrate that naval forces must be prepared to confront a variety of threats while executing diverse missions — ranging from peacekeeping and disaster relief to combat operations. Absent the superpower stability of the Cold War, several regions are more prone to violence and conflict, underscoring the need for highly effective and credible forces to protect vital interests. Moreover, as recent crisis and conflict make clear, naval forces are an essential tool of statecraft.

America’s naval forces must meet the diverse challenges of today and the ambiguous threats of tomorrow by addressing strategic and doctrinal constructs, by preparing for nontraditional and even unconventional warfare, and by harnessing the power of the latest technology. Littoral operations in a complex, confined battlespace place naval forces at greater risk from enemy submarines, sea mines, and cruise missiles than open- ocean scenarios. Many regional powers can purchase systems, including weapons of mass destruction, virtually off-the-shelf. Countering these weapons, and their associated command-and-control nodes, presents a continuous challenge to Navy and Marine Corps maritime dominance in the littorals.

Three areas of especially rapid technological growth — sensor technology computer processing capability, and long-range precision guided weapons — are vital factors in maintaining our current unparalleled offensive capability. Together, these factors provide the means for a significant increase in the ability of naval forces to find and exploit enemy vulnerabilities, and to project significant power precisely and accurately to all but a small fraction of the world’s surface.

Leveraging Our Technology

Our ability to execute the functional characteristics of naval forces — naval fires, naval maneuver, cooperative protection, and sustainment — and the Marine Corps’ application of Operational Maneuver from the Sea (OMFTS) are essential to the success of future joint and combined campaigns. These primary operational elements parallel the four tenets of Joint Vision 2010: Dominant Maneuver, Precision Engagement, Full Dimension Protection and Focused Logistics. They frame the way force structure, employment policies, and tactics are developed. Further, they define how naval forces perform in support of national military objectives. Depending upon the particular mix of these capabilities, naval forces provide joint task force commanders and unified commanders-in-chief a flexible set of tools useful across the full spectrum of conflict.

Naval fires define what previously was called strike operations. It includes the networked use of sensors, information systems, responsive command and control systems, precisely targeted weapons, and agile, lethal forces to achieve desired effects, assess damage, and reengage when required. Naval fires range from Marine mortars and artillery to conventional land-attack cruise missiles. The capability to precisely attack land targets with a variety of weaponry is core to sea-based forces’ ability to hold at risk and dominate an adversary’s military, political, and economic centers of gravity.

Naval maneuver is the coordinated use of mobile sea-based forces to gain advantage on or from the sea. Using the sea as maneuver space, naval forces, equipped with advanced amphibious capabilities, can strike anywhere in the littoral region and deliver a decisive blow to an adversary’s centers of gravity. Future networked naval forces, sharing a common operational picture, will exploit enemy weaknesses. Networked naval forces will maximize self-synchronization and achieve mass effects, without the need to mass forces off shore. In addition, naval forces will concentrate fires from widely separated locations at speeds adversaries cannot match. As such, naval maneuver exploits several principles of war simultaneously.

Cooperative protection is the control of the battlespace to ensure that joint and combined forces maintain freedom of action during deployment, maneuver, and engagement, while defending those forces and facilities. As the defensive aspect of sea and area control, cooperative protection requires more than self-defense; it also integrates force-protection extending throughout area and theater defense of naval forces and assets on land. The Navy is developing the maritime pieces of a cooperative protection capability with Joint Theater Air and Missile Defense and Cooperative Engagement Capability. Enhanced situational awareness, coupled with shared, real-time targeting information, makes possible a stronger, more complete defense than could be provided by any single system or unit.

Sustainment is the delivery of tailored and focused support and logistics from the sea across the spectrum of crisis-response and conflict. Sustainment is more than logistics. For high-tempo operations to succeed as envisioned in OMFTS and the complementary Ship-to-Objective Maneuver (STOM) concept, sea-based sustainment must support and work in harmony with naval fires, naval maneuver, and cooperative protection. OMFTS forces traveling lighter and faster will carry less logistic support organically and depend upon sea-based resources.

Sealift is a critical enabler for joint ground and air components ashore. As recently as Desert Storm, over 90% of all material transferred into theater, for all U.S. forces, arrived by sea. Joint warfighting forces will continue to depend heavily on prepositioned and surge sealift assets for sustainment during a conflict.

The Navy invests heavily in building a fleet of support ships to sustain all aspects of a conflict. For instance, 13 Maritime Prepositioning Ships (MPS), divided into three squadrons, support the Marine Corps. Each squadron carries equipment and supplies to support a notional MAGTF of up to 17,000 Marines and Sailors for 30 days of combat. A Maritime Prepositioning Force Enhancement program (MPF-E) is underway which will add one ship to each squadron.

The Navy also supports a fleet of ships to preposition equipment for an Army brigade. This fleet includes a variety of ships with specialized capabilities, such as self-sustaining container ships, barge-carrying ships, float-on/float-off ships, crane ships, and roll- on/roll-off ships. A third fleet of prepositioned vessels is located in key locations with fuel and ammunition for the U.S. Air Force, as well as supplies for a fleet hospital. Finally, strategically located near U.S. ports of embarkation are eight Fast Sealift Ships (FSS) to provide the initial surge lift capability needed to transport tanks and other heavy tactical equipment early in a conflict. A new-construction/conversion program for 19 Large Medium Speed Roll-on/Roll-off (LMSRs) ships will be completed by 2002 to augment the eight FSS for these missions.

A final sealift option exists in a unique business arrangement — the Voluntary Intermodal Service Agreement (VISA) — which guarantees the Department of Defense priority access to the worldwide container distribution system in return for annual subsidy payments to U.S. flag companies. This arrangement ensures the capability to move massive amounts of cargo needed to sustain a war effort is available.

Advanced Naval Maneuver Concepts

The Marine Corps’ OMFTS presents a new approach to amphibious, expeditionary, and littoral operations. OMFTS capitalizes on the advantages inherent in seaborne maneuver and the flexibility provided by sea-based command and control, fires, aviation and logistics. It couples amphibious and maneuver warfare with technological advances in speed, mobility, fire support, communications, and navigation. These advantages allow naval forces to identify and rapidly exploit enemy vulnerabilities. Most significantly, the sea-based character of future MAGTFs, logistics/support ships and bases will allow them — in most cases — to be the first to reach a crisis area. This also enables them to remain at sea nearby, as a crisis develops—free from dependency upon land bases.

Meeting the military challenges of the next century will require innovation, experimentation, and change — grappling with the realities of chemical and biological warfare and tackling the difficulties inherent in modern warfare, especially in urban terrain. It means finding solutions to challenges using both technology and new approaches in doctrine, organization, tactics, and training. It also means developing a transformation strategy to maximize opportunities created by rapid technological advances. Using OMFTS as a roadmap to the future, the Marine Corps developed a series of supporting warfighting concepts to complement their core competencies.

Ship-to-Objective Maneuver focuses on the tactical level of amphibious operations, eliminating the operational pause at the beach during ship-to-shore movement and subsequent maneuver ashore. Sustained Operations Ashore describes how naval forces, even in long-duration campaigns, will capitalize on their sea-based character to reduce their vulnerable footprint ashore, while conducting effective military operations. Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF) 2010 and Beyond outlines capabilities required to enhance MPF operations to fully support OMFTS.

Another critical concept is Beyond C2: Comprehensive Command and Coordination of the MAGTF. It attempts to move future commanders away from technology-induced “mechanistic control” and toward the fundamental exercise of command. Through the principles of adaptive learning, implicit communications, mutual understanding, and intuitive decision making, Beyond C2 focuses on the powerful positive aspects of human interaction that foster creative problem-solving. Additionally, access to a worldwide command information architecture will provide forward deployed situational awareness. Through an in-depth examination of technology and the functions of command, Beyond C2 explores the coordination of the intellectual and material power of the military, business entities, academia, other government agencies, and non-government organizations to address the challenges of the 21st Century. Beyond C2 improves upon the MAGTF’s ability to serve as a “JTF Enabler” for large coalitions or follow-on forces.

Finally, the Marine Corps Combat Development Command (MCCDC) and the Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC) jointly addressed two of the most difficult problems facing naval forces in future maritime campaigns: the threat of naval mines and sustainment from the sea. Two concept papers, Future Mine Countermeasures in Littoral Power Projection and Sea-Based Logistics, establish a foundation for the Navy-Marine Corps team to take on these challenges. Collectively, these publications define future battlespace and the capabilities that are needed to win in it.

Navy Warfare Technologies

Recognizing the challenges of tomorrow along with advances in technology, the Navy is investing its resources in five specific warfare areas: Network Centric Warfare, Land Attack, Theater Ballistic Missile Defense, Mine Warfare, and Anti-Submarine Warfare.

Network Centric Warfare (NCW): The culture of a network world society will make the Navy of the 21st Century unrecognizable from today’s. At the end of 1998, according to one published account, 900 million voice-mail messages were exchanged each day, 5 million e-mails were sent each minute, Internet traffic was doubling every 100 days, and there were 27 million new cellular phone subscribers (285 million in all worldwide).

As we continue to navigate the uncharted waters of this new era, the Navy and Marine Corps need to harness technology and accept the resulting cultural changes to remain the world’s pre-eminent naval force. To accomplish this will take at least the following: (1) the installation of reliable, robust and secure information infrastructure with well- managed bandwidth, spectrum, and information flow (PCs, LANs, switches, RF link, and landlines); (2) the effective organization of naval information; and (3) fundamentally changing our information-based warfighting practices.

Central to every aspect of the Navy’s future operations, NCW derives its power from the reliable and ubiquitous networking of well-informed, geographically dispersed forces. A multi-sensor information grid will provide all commanders access to essential data, sensors, command-and-control systems, and weapons. This easily accessible open network will support rapid data flow among the sensor, command-and-control, and shooter grids. The first steps toward meeting this requirement include implementation of Information Technology for the 21st Century (IT-21), the Navy-Wide Intranet (NWI), and the sensor netting technology of the Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC).

Superior knowledge is a powerful advantage in a conflict and is a prerequisite for victory. NCW will change U.S. warfighting fundamentally by employing information technology as a force multiplier. It will facilitate the penetration, disruption, denial, and deception of the adversary’s information processes, while providing friendly forces a superior understanding of complex operations. NCW will provide accurate and timely shared situational awareness that allows dispersed forces to coordinate actions and respond rapidly to emerging threats and opportunities within the theater of operations.

Land Attack: Precision land-attack operations conducted by carrier-based aircraft, land- attack surface warships, and attack submarines will provide massive, sustainable fires from the sea. High-intensity sea-based firepower will allow forces ashore to achieve critical objectives quickly and permit the flow of heavy follow-on forces within desired timelines.

In the early years of the 21st Century, the Navy will use F/A-18 E/F Super Hornets, advanced Joint Strike Fighters, and variants of the Tomahawk land-attack cruise missile to deliver devastating long-range precision strikes. In that same timeframe, the Navy will provide high-volume fires from 5-inch/62-caliber guns firing extended-range guided munitions (ERGMs). Targeting will be achieved with a naval fires control system that operates seamlessly with joint fire support systems. In addition, the Navy is using new production methods and modular design techniques to develop a new variant of the Tomahawk missile. The new program will preserve long-range precision strike capability while significantly increasing Tomahawk’s responsiveness and flexibility.

Providing sustained, sea-based precision firepower guarantees the benefits of effective massed fires without the need to mass forces physically. The long reach of precision guided weapons adds a new dimension in the ways the Navy can affect conflict ashore. In short, the 21st Century Navy will be equipped to deliver offensive distributed firepower from long range for extended periods, with reduced risk.

Theater Ballistic Missile Defense (TBMD): Recent events emphasize the growing need for a theater ballistic missile defense (TBMD). Pakistan’s test of the medium-range Ghauri ballistic missile, North Korea’s test of a three-stage, solid fueled Taepo Dong missile, and Iran’s test of the medium-range Shahab-3 underscored the compelling requirement for an effective, forward deployed TBMD capability. Today, more than 20 nations have a ballistic missile or cruise missile capability. In addition, 20 nations have, or are thought to be developing, nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons. The Navy is attempting to leverage the impressive power of the Aegis cruiser-destroyer force in ways that will provide safety and sanctuary for U.S. and allied troops. Through the power of the Aegis SPY radar and the capabilities of the Standard Missile (SM-2), the Navy is working to provide a reliable theater missile defense network that will act as a protective umbrella for operations in most scenarios.

The mission of the Navy’s Area TBMD system is to provide U.S. and allied forces, as well as areas of vital national interest, defense against TBMs. Rapid deployability of Navy TBMD reduces the requirement for airlift to be devoted to TBMD forces in the opening days of a crisis. This permits using scarce airlift resources to transport aircraft squadron logistics, anti-armor, and troops to deter or stop a conflict. Finally, Navy Area TBMD takes advantage of the inherent flexibility and mobility of naval forces to provide defense against ballistic missiles without reliance on host-nation permission or support.

The Navy Theater Wide (NTW) effort evolves from the Navy Area TBMD Program and consists of modifications to the Aegis weapon system and the integration of the Lightweight Exoatmospheric Projectile (LEAP) with a three-stage SM-2 Block IV missile. The NTW system will be capable of high-altitude exoatmospheric intercepts of medium- and longer-range TBMs. The near term development approach includes nine Aegis-LEAP intercept tests from 1998 to 2000 and parallel risk-reduction activities in preparation for engineering development.

Necessary to winning any littoral conflict is securing control of the air. The Navy is developing an afloat Area Air Defense Commander (AADC) system to support sea-based theater battlespace management. AADC will support the joint commander in conducting near-real-time, area-wide air defense planning in support of joint operations. Using commercial, off-the-shelf hardware, a prototype is capable of executing 56 billion instructions per second. This computing power enables the testing of alternative air defense plans to support the commander with the very best disposition of air defense forces. The use of three-dimensional symbology in tactical displays provides unprecedented situational awareness to the embarked joint commander and staff. A prototype will be installed in USS Shiloh (CG-67) in early 1999 for at-sea testing. An Initial Operational Capability (IOC) is anticipated in FY 01. Twelve Aegis cruisers will be outfitted with this capability between FY 04 and FY 07, in accordance with the Cruiser Modernization Program.

Mine Warfare: The Department of the Navy is investing now to equip carrier battle groups and amphibious ready groups with organic minehunting and mine-clearance capabilities. Variants of the H-60 helicopter will carry minehunting sensors and neutralization gear such as the Airborne Laser Mine Detection System, the Shallow Water Influence Mine Sweeping System, and the Airborne Mine Neutralization System. Instead of waiting for dedicated mine-warfare assets to arrive, the commander will have mine detection and avoidance systems at his disposal. The tactical information and tools needed to allow freedom of action and dominant maneuver of his force in the face of a dangerous, cheaply deployed mine threat will now be on station. The ultimate goal of deploying organic mine warfare systems is to extend maritime domination into the littorals by minimizing the effectiveness of the most asymmetric and prevalent sea threat there, the sea mine.

The Navy’s Underwater Unmanned Vehicle (UUV) program has focused on developing a Near-Term Mine Reconnaissance System (NRMS) for Los Angeles class submarines. The NRMS will provide limited, stopgap operational capability to conduct clandestine mine reconnaissance. Subsequently, a Long Range Mine Reconnaissance System (LMRS), which will replace NMRS, will fully meet the requirements to conduct clandestine mine reconnaissance from submarines.

Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW): ASW is essential to sea control and maritime dominance. As such, it is a critical element in attaining joint objectives from the sea. Many nations can employ submarines to deny access to forward regions or significantly delay the execution of operations plans. Because of its inherent stealth, lethality, and affordability, the submarine is a powerful counter to an adversary’s surveillance and targeting systems that increasingly will hold surface assets at risk. Although the worldwide inventory of submarines has declined, their quality and lethality have improved dramatically.

The Navy is sustaining efforts to counter our adversaries’ submarines. A key requirement is an architecture that can maximize commonality among all ASW platforms for both effectiveness and affordability. Multi-static active detection systems will employ advanced processing and leverage legacy ASW systems. The use of rapidly deployable, distributed arrays, like that being developed in the Advanced Deployable System program, will provide wide-area deployable shallow water undersea surveillance in the complex littoral environment. The Lightweight Hybrid Torpedo for surface and air ASW forces and the CBASS upgrade to the Advanced Capability torpedo (ADCAP) for submarines will offer the Navy improved weapon effectiveness against littoral submarine targets and countermeasures. In this regard, the Virginia class attack submarine is designed for multi-mission operations, but will have a level of stealth unsurpassed by any other submarine currently in operation or under development.

These are just a few of the programs, augmented by sustained and focused research-and- development efforts that will ensure our continued undersea warfare superiority against a continually evolving submarine threat.

Naval forces use space systems to support tactical warfighting needs, including communications, reconnaissance, surveillance, targeting, battle damage assessment, navigation, and environmental monitoring. This tactical focus characterizes naval efforts in space. Our maritime forces, operating in accordance with strategies and tactics which emphasize maneuverability and joint operations tailored to national needs, and operating forward, from the sea, necessitate naval dependence upon space-based support.

Marine Corps Core Competencies

MAGTF operations are built upon a foundation of six special core competencies. The direct result of more than 223 years of expeditionary experience, these six core competencies define the essence of the unique Marine institutional culture as well as their role within the national military establishment. Core competencies are developed from inherent Marine missions, such as expeditionary amphibious operations, and drive Marines to develop specific sets of skills while executing special roles and missions.

The first core competency, expeditionary readiness, defines an institution ready to respond instantaneously to world-wide crises, every day. This requires a force that can transition from peacetime to combat operations at a moment’s notice, and achieve certain success without critical Reserve augmentation. It also demands a force that can flourish under adverse conditions and in ambiguous conflict environments. Finally, it means being ready to defeat the opponent-after-next, which can be achieved only through continued investment in experimentation, adaptation, and change.

The second core competency is combined-arms operations. The MAGTF requires an organic, combined-arms capability. For half a century, MAGTFs have been organized, trained, and equipped to ensure that their ground combat, air combat, and combat service support capabilities would be directed by a single commander.

Expeditionary operations, the third core competency, is primarily a special mind set — one that ensures that Marines will be prepared for immediate deployment overseas into austere operating environments.

The fourth core competency, sea-based operations, provides extraordinary strategic reach, and gives the nation an enduring means to influence and shape the evolving international environment. An appropriately prepared and equipped combined-arms MAGTF, operating from a mobile, protected seabase, provides the National Command Authorities with unimpeded and politically unencumbered access to potential trouble spots around the globe.

The Marines are best known for their fifth core competency, forcible entry. In the past, forcible entry from the sea was defined as amphibious assaults, establishing lodgments on the beach and then building up combat power ashore for subsequent operations. It is now defined as an uninterrupted movement of forces from ships located over the horizon directly against decisive objectives.

The sixth core competency of reserve integration captures the practice of augmenting and reinforcing active component units with the Marine Reserve in crisis-response missions and adding to combat power for sustained operations. All Marines are combat-ready, and the integration of Reserve elements into the active duty force structure ensures that the phrase “Total Force” is not a hollow boast.

These core competencies are not honed to perfection without relevant and applicable concepts, and concepts cannot be realized without mutually reinforcing warfighting assets. By modernizing and tailoring the amphibious fleet, over-the-horizon launch platforms will be provided to support the MV-22 Osprey aircraft, the short-takeoff and vertical-landing (STOVL) variant of the Joint Strike Fighter, the Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle, and the already proven Landing Craft Air-Cushion. The following program elements are essential to the Marine Corps’ future ability to execute Operational Maneuver From the Sea and Ship-to-Objective Maneuver.

Sea-Based Forcible-Entry Operations: The MV-22 Osprey remains the Marine Corps’ highest aviation acquisition priority and is necessary to conduct sea-based forcible entry operations. Recognizing the huge operational advantages of this aircraft, the Marines have long championed the development of tilt-rotor technology. The development of the MV-22 compares with earlier technological breakthroughs associated with the first helicopter and the first jet engine, and gives the Marine Corps the range to cover a much greater expanse of the littorals from the sea. The MV-22 flies significantly farther, faster, and with greater payloads than the current fleet of aging medium lift CH-46E/CH-53D helicopters.

This combat multiplier allows Marines to strike rapidly at objectives located deep inland. It provides Navy ships adequate stand-off distance to defend against shore-based missiles, sea mines, and other asymmetric threats, and also delays detection of the striking force. Initial operational capability for the Osprey is expected to occur in FY 01.

Amphibious Modernization Program: The amphibious lift modernization plan also supports Marine Corps core competencies. The program is focused on the formation of the 12 Amphibious Ready Groups (ARGs) needed to meet the nation’s forward-presence and contingency response requirements, and it supports the lifting equivalent of 2.5 Marine Expeditionary Brigades in wartime. The plan shapes the future amphibious force with the optimum number and type of ships required for a flexible and adaptive combined-arms crisis-response capability. Ultimately, the amphibious force will consist of 12 LHA/Ds (Tarawa and Wasp classes), 12 LPD-17s (San Antonio class), and 12 LSD-41/49s (Whidbey Island and Harpers Ferry class), capable of forming 12 ARGs or operating independently in a “split-ARG” concept of operations.

The San Antonio class (LPD-17) is a critical link in attaining the goal of a modern 12- ARG amphibious force. The LPD-17 will be a significant improvement in ameliorating current vehicle stowage shortfalls and meeting other MAGTF lift requirements. The LPD-17 will carry 700 embarked troops and two LCACs, while providing 25,000 square feet of vehicle stowage space, 36,000 cubic feet of cargo space and the capacity to accommodate four CH-46 helicopter or a mix of the other rotary wing Marine aircraft. The LPD-17 will have a robust communications network including narrow- and wide-band satellite communications and the ability to connect directly to the Tactical Telephone System used by ground units ashore via the Switch Multiplexer Unit (SMU). The LPD-17’s communication suite will provide multiple pathways to and from the theater both while the ARG is combined and operating in the “split-ARG” mode.

The Tarawa class LHAs will begin to reach the end of their expected service life in 2011. A Development of Options Study (DOS) conducted by the Center for Naval Analyses (CNA) is underway to determine the best course of action to preserve the land attack and sea control/power projection missions of our large deck amphibious ships. There are three alternatives being considered: (a) LHA service life extension; (b) a modification of the Wasp class LHD, designated LHD 8; and (c) a new ship designated the LHX.

An essential component in implementing Ship-to-Objective Maneuver is the Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle, or AAAV. Currently in its demonstration and validation phase, the AAAV will allow rapid, high-speed transportation of Marine combat units directly from amphibious assault ships — located well beyond the visual horizon – to objectives located well inland. This will effectively eliminate the need for an operational pause to build up combat power on the beachhead. When fielding begins in FY 06, the AAAV will be the most modern and capable amphibious vehicle in the world. The AAAV will have capabilities comparable to infantry fighting vehicles.

Force protection against TBMs and land-attack cruise missiles is a critical component of future forcible entry operations. Scheduled for Fleet operation in FY 99, the AN/TPS- 59(V)3 is the Marine Corps advanced three-dimensional, long-range radar, and is the MAGTF’s primary means of detecting, identifying, tracking, and reporting on all aircraft and missiles within the MAGTF area of responsibility. This improved radar provides land-based air surveillance for the Marine component of a naval force, and will contribute to the Navy’s Cooperative Engagement Capability. This system is also capable of detecting and tracking multiple theater ballistic missiles, with point of origin/point of impact calculations in support of theater missile defense.

Combined–Arms Operations: The Short Takeoff or Vertical Landing variant of the Joint Strike Fighter is critical to conducting combined-arms operations in the future. The Marine Corps depends heavily upon the use of fully integrated air support in combined- arms and expeditionary warfare. This approach reinforces expeditionary warfare by radically reducing dependence upon limited armor and artillery assets. The JSF will replace the Marine AV-8B Harrier and F/A-18 Hornet aircraft, and is scheduled to reach the initial operating capability phase in 2010. JSF first delivery of USMC VSTOL type is planned for FY 08.

The lightweight 155mm towed howitzer (LW155) will replace the aging M198 155mm towed howitzer as the only artillery system in the Marine Corps inventory. The LW155 is designed for expeditionary operations requiring light, highly mobile artillery, and will be transportable by MV-22 Osprey and CH-53E aircraft. The howitzer’s lighter weight and automated breech, rammer, and digital fire control computer will provide the MAGTF commander with increased responsiveness and efficiency. The program is in the engineering and manufacturing development phase, with initial operational capability scheduled in FY 03.

Predator is a one-man portable, fire-and-forget missile system capable of defeating the next generation of advanced armor threats. This system is “soft-launch” capable, which allows it to be fired from within an enclosure. Additionally, its fly-over, shoot-down profile gives it an effective range between 17 and 600 meters. The Predator begins production in FY 01 for an initial operational capability in FY 03 and a full operational capability in FY 08.


Naval Command and Control Systems

The advance of digital technology has had no greater impact than in the field of command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR). The capabilities provided by modern C4ISR systems dramatically changed the way conflicts will be resolved. An innovative, efficient, and well-coordinated approach to technology infusion is necessary to establish connectivity for joint warfare.

Command and control afloat is the foundation upon which future naval operations will be built. This vision requires an integrated and comprehensive command/control structure to facilitate decisive events ashore. Technologically, this will require superior sensors and fast and powerful networks that are integrated with deadly weapon systems. Four of the most prominent C4ISR initiatives include:

Extending the Littoral Battlespace Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ELB ACTD): The requirements for the ELB ACTD grew out of the Defense Science Board (DSB) Summer ‘96 Study, Tactics and Techniques for 21st Century Military Superiority. This study recommended the establishment of a joint expeditionary force that is light, agile, potent, and distributed. The focus of the ACTD is the integration of advances in information technology with industry, the Services and Defense Agencies to expedite the implementation of the advanced warfighting concepts outlined in Forward...From The Sea, Operational Maneuver From The Sea, and Joint Vision 2010.

Global Command and Control System - Maritime (GCCS-M): GCCS-M is the Navy’s designated command-and-control (C2) system for entering the 21st Century. A key enabler of the Navy’s IT-21 Network Centric Warfare initiative, GCCS-M follows an evolutionary acquisition process to meet emerging fleet requirements rapidly. This system supports C2 and tactical intelligence warfighting requirements for afloat, ashore, and tactical/mobile units. GCCS-M provides timely, accurate, and complete all-source C4ISR information management and develops a common operational picture for warfare mission assessment, planning, and execution. The current version of the system software is using the same core software as the joint GCCS and MAGTF C4I systems. This fielded version also initiates the long-term migration from UNIX workstation to PC hardware.

Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC): CEC is a weapons-control network that uses revolutionary sensor netting technology to exchange raw sensor measurement data to develop composite air tracks. This capability expands the battlespace and provides increased situational awareness to the operators. CEC is the foundation network for the development of a single integrated air picture, which is vital to air dominance in the littoral. CEC also will allow warfighters to make maximum use of advanced surface-to- air weapons.

The increasingly complex threats in the air-defense arena make it necessary to link geographically dispersed sensors of differing capabilities with all potential firing platforms. CEC acts as a force multiplier in that each firing platform benefits from a force-wide netted sensor input. In addition, the ability to build force-wide composite tracks means that every participating unit has an identical, real-time tactical picture. Installation of the system in the E-2C Hawkeye aircraft will greatly expand the CEC envelope to include the ability to conduct overland engagement of cruise missiles. Further, the E-2C CEC installation, part of the Hawkeye 2000 Program, will allow more widely dispersed fleet units to reap the full benefits of this enhanced capability. CEC achieved initial operational capability in late-September 1996, and was deployed in the Eisenhower battle group in 1998. The Navy continues to work with the Army and Air Force to expand CEC applications in the joint arena.

Tactical Combat Operations (TCO) System: TCO is an automated capability for processing battlefield information. Achieving its initial operating capability in FY 96, the TCO System provides the Marines the same automated operations system currently used by the Navy. This system is built around GCCS-M, which brings a major increase in interoperability to the services. Currently, the Marine Expeditionary Force and Marine Expeditionary Unit headquarters elements have an interim capability, with a full operational capability expected at the end of FY 99.


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