V. Technology for Tomorrow
The Navy and Marine Corps’ strategic concepts papers ...From the Sea and
Forward...From The Sea sharpened the focus of naval forces to emphasize operations in
the littorals and the requirement to project decisive power and directly influence actions
ashore — anywhere, anytime. Events of the past decade demonstrate that naval forces
must be prepared to confront a variety of threats while executing diverse missions —
ranging from peacekeeping and disaster relief to combat operations. Absent the
superpower stability of the Cold War, several regions are more prone to violence and
conflict, underscoring the need for highly effective and credible forces to protect vital
interests. Moreover, as recent crisis and conflict make clear, naval forces are an essential
tool of statecraft.
America’s naval forces must meet the diverse challenges of today and the ambiguous
threats of tomorrow by addressing strategic and doctrinal constructs, by preparing for
nontraditional and even unconventional warfare, and by harnessing the power of the
latest technology. Littoral operations in a complex, confined battlespace place naval
forces at greater risk from enemy submarines, sea mines, and cruise missiles than open-
ocean scenarios. Many regional powers can purchase systems, including weapons of
mass destruction, virtually off-the-shelf. Countering these weapons, and their associated
command-and-control nodes, presents a continuous challenge to Navy and Marine Corps
maritime dominance in the littorals.
Three areas of especially rapid technological growth — sensor technology computer
processing capability, and long-range precision guided weapons — are vital factors in
maintaining our current unparalleled offensive capability. Together, these factors provide
the means for a significant increase in the ability of naval forces to find and exploit
enemy vulnerabilities, and to project significant power precisely and accurately to all but
a small fraction of the world’s surface.
Leveraging Our Technology
Our ability to execute the functional characteristics of naval forces — naval fires, naval
maneuver, cooperative protection, and sustainment — and the Marine Corps’ application
of Operational Maneuver from the Sea (OMFTS) are essential to
the success of future joint and combined campaigns. These primary operational elements
parallel the four tenets of Joint Vision 2010: Dominant Maneuver, Precision
Engagement, Full Dimension Protection and Focused Logistics. They frame the way
force structure, employment policies, and tactics are developed. Further, they define
how naval forces perform in support of national military objectives. Depending upon the
particular mix of these capabilities, naval forces provide joint task force commanders and
unified commanders-in-chief a flexible set of tools useful across the full spectrum of
Naval fires define what previously was called strike operations. It includes the
networked use of sensors, information systems, responsive command and control
systems, precisely targeted weapons, and agile, lethal forces to achieve desired effects,
assess damage, and reengage when required. Naval fires range from Marine mortars and
artillery to conventional land-attack cruise missiles. The capability to precisely attack
land targets with a variety of weaponry is core to sea-based forces’ ability to hold at risk
and dominate an adversary’s military, political, and economic centers of gravity.
Naval maneuver is the coordinated use of mobile sea-based forces to gain advantage on
or from the sea. Using the sea as maneuver space, naval forces, equipped with advanced
amphibious capabilities, can strike anywhere in the littoral region and deliver a decisive
blow to an adversary’s centers of gravity. Future networked naval forces, sharing a
common operational picture, will exploit enemy weaknesses. Networked naval forces
will maximize self-synchronization and achieve mass effects, without the need to mass
forces off shore. In addition, naval forces will concentrate fires from widely separated
locations at speeds adversaries cannot match. As such, naval maneuver exploits several
principles of war simultaneously.
Cooperative protection is the control of the battlespace to ensure that joint and combined
forces maintain freedom of action during deployment, maneuver, and engagement, while
defending those forces and facilities. As the defensive aspect of sea and area control,
cooperative protection requires more than self-defense; it also integrates force-protection
extending throughout area and theater defense of naval forces and assets on land. The
Navy is developing the maritime pieces of a cooperative protection capability with Joint
Theater Air and Missile Defense and Cooperative Engagement Capability. Enhanced
situational awareness, coupled with shared, real-time targeting information, makes
possible a stronger, more complete defense than could be provided by any single system
Sustainment is the delivery of tailored and focused support and logistics from the sea
across the spectrum of crisis-response and conflict. Sustainment is more than logistics.
For high-tempo operations to succeed as envisioned in OMFTS and the complementary
Ship-to-Objective Maneuver (STOM) concept, sea-based sustainment must support and
work in harmony with naval fires, naval maneuver, and cooperative protection. OMFTS
forces traveling lighter and faster will carry less logistic support organically and depend
upon sea-based resources.
Sealift is a critical enabler for joint ground and air components ashore. As recently as
Desert Storm, over 90% of all material transferred into theater, for all U.S. forces, arrived
by sea. Joint warfighting forces will continue to depend heavily on prepositioned and
surge sealift assets for sustainment during a conflict.
The Navy invests heavily in building a fleet of support ships to sustain all aspects of a
conflict. For instance, 13 Maritime Prepositioning Ships (MPS), divided into three
squadrons, support the Marine Corps. Each squadron carries equipment and supplies to
support a notional MAGTF of up to 17,000 Marines and Sailors for 30 days of combat.
A Maritime Prepositioning Force Enhancement program (MPF-E) is underway which
will add one ship to each squadron.
The Navy also supports a fleet of ships to preposition equipment for an Army brigade.
This fleet includes a variety of ships with specialized capabilities, such as self-sustaining
container ships, barge-carrying ships, float-on/float-off ships, crane ships, and roll-
on/roll-off ships. A third fleet of prepositioned vessels is located in key locations with
fuel and ammunition for the U.S. Air Force, as well as supplies for a fleet hospital.
Finally, strategically located near U.S. ports of embarkation are eight Fast Sealift Ships
(FSS) to provide the initial surge lift capability needed to transport tanks and other heavy
tactical equipment early in a conflict. A new-construction/conversion program for 19
Large Medium Speed Roll-on/Roll-off (LMSRs) ships will be completed by 2002 to
augment the eight FSS for these missions.
A final sealift option exists in a unique business arrangement — the Voluntary
Intermodal Service Agreement (VISA) — which guarantees the Department of Defense
priority access to the worldwide container distribution system in return for annual subsidy
payments to U.S. flag companies. This arrangement ensures the capability to move
massive amounts of cargo needed to sustain a war effort is available.
Advanced Naval Maneuver Concepts
The Marine Corps’ OMFTS presents a new approach to amphibious, expeditionary, and
littoral operations. OMFTS capitalizes on the advantages inherent in seaborne maneuver
and the flexibility provided by sea-based command and control, fires, aviation and
logistics. It couples amphibious and maneuver warfare with technological advances in
speed, mobility, fire support, communications, and
navigation. These advantages allow naval forces to identify and rapidly exploit enemy
vulnerabilities. Most significantly, the sea-based character of future MAGTFs,
logistics/support ships and bases will allow them — in most cases — to be the first to reach
a crisis area. This also enables them to remain at sea nearby, as a crisis develops—free
from dependency upon land bases.
Meeting the military challenges of the next century will require innovation,
experimentation, and change — grappling with the realities of chemical and biological
warfare and tackling the difficulties inherent in modern warfare, especially in urban
terrain. It means finding solutions to challenges using both technology and new
approaches in doctrine, organization, tactics, and training. It also means developing a
transformation strategy to maximize opportunities created by rapid technological
advances. Using OMFTS as a roadmap to the future, the Marine Corps developed a
series of supporting warfighting concepts to complement their core competencies.
Ship-to-Objective Maneuver focuses on the tactical level of amphibious operations,
eliminating the operational pause at the beach during ship-to-shore movement and
subsequent maneuver ashore. Sustained Operations Ashore describes how naval forces,
even in long-duration campaigns, will capitalize on their sea-based character to reduce
their vulnerable footprint ashore, while conducting effective military operations.
Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF) 2010 and Beyond outlines capabilities required to
enhance MPF operations to fully support OMFTS.
Another critical concept is Beyond C2: Comprehensive Command and Coordination of
the MAGTF. It attempts to move future commanders away from technology-induced
“mechanistic control” and toward the fundamental exercise of command. Through the
principles of adaptive learning, implicit communications, mutual understanding, and
intuitive decision making, Beyond C2 focuses on the powerful positive aspects of human
interaction that foster creative problem-solving. Additionally, access to a worldwide
command information architecture will provide forward deployed situational awareness.
Through an in-depth examination of technology and the functions of command, Beyond C2 explores the coordination of the intellectual and material power of the military,
business entities, academia, other government agencies, and non-government
organizations to address the challenges of the 21st Century. Beyond C2 improves upon
the MAGTF’s ability to serve as a “JTF Enabler” for large coalitions or follow-on forces.
Finally, the Marine Corps Combat Development Command (MCCDC) and the Navy
Warfare Development Command (NWDC) jointly addressed two of the most difficult
problems facing naval forces in future maritime campaigns: the threat of naval mines and
sustainment from the sea. Two concept papers, Future Mine Countermeasures in Littoral
Power Projection and Sea-Based Logistics, establish a foundation for the Navy-Marine
Corps team to take on these challenges. Collectively, these publications define future
battlespace and the capabilities that are needed to win in it.
Navy Warfare Technologies
Recognizing the challenges of tomorrow along with advances in technology, the Navy is
investing its resources in five specific warfare areas: Network Centric Warfare, Land
Attack, Theater Ballistic Missile Defense, Mine Warfare, and Anti-Submarine Warfare.
Network Centric Warfare (NCW): The culture of a network world society will make the
Navy of the 21st Century unrecognizable from today’s. At the end of 1998, according to
one published account, 900 million voice-mail messages were exchanged each day, 5
million e-mails were sent each minute, Internet traffic was doubling every 100 days, and
there were 27 million new cellular phone subscribers (285 million in all worldwide).
As we continue to navigate the uncharted waters of this new era, the Navy and Marine
Corps need to harness technology and accept the resulting cultural changes to remain the
world’s pre-eminent naval force. To accomplish this will take at least the following: (1)
the installation of reliable, robust and secure information infrastructure with well-
managed bandwidth, spectrum, and information flow (PCs, LANs, switches, RF link, and
landlines); (2) the effective organization of naval information; and (3) fundamentally
changing our information-based warfighting practices.
Central to every aspect of the Navy’s future operations, NCW derives its power from the
reliable and ubiquitous networking of well-informed, geographically dispersed forces. A
multi-sensor information grid will provide all commanders access to essential data,
sensors, command-and-control systems, and weapons. This easily accessible open
network will support rapid data flow among the sensor, command-and-control, and
shooter grids. The first steps toward meeting this requirement include implementation of
Information Technology for the 21st Century (IT-21), the Navy-Wide Intranet (NWI),
and the sensor netting technology of the Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC).
Superior knowledge is a powerful advantage in a conflict and is a prerequisite for victory.
NCW will change U.S. warfighting fundamentally by employing information technology
as a force multiplier. It will facilitate the penetration, disruption, denial, and deception of
the adversary’s information processes, while providing friendly forces a superior
understanding of complex operations. NCW will provide accurate and timely shared
situational awareness that allows dispersed forces to coordinate actions and respond
rapidly to emerging threats and opportunities within the theater of operations.
Land Attack: Precision land-attack operations conducted by carrier-based aircraft, land-
attack surface warships, and attack submarines will provide massive, sustainable fires
from the sea. High-intensity sea-based firepower will allow forces ashore to achieve
critical objectives quickly and permit the flow of heavy follow-on forces within desired
In the early years of the 21st Century, the Navy will use F/A-18 E/F Super Hornets, advanced Joint Strike Fighters, and variants of the Tomahawk land-attack cruise missile to deliver devastating long-range precision strikes. In that same timeframe, the Navy will
provide high-volume fires from 5-inch/62-caliber guns firing extended-range guided
munitions (ERGMs). Targeting will be achieved with a naval fires control system that
operates seamlessly with joint fire support systems. In addition, the Navy is using new
production methods and modular design techniques to develop a new variant of the
Tomahawk missile. The new program will preserve long-range precision strike
capability while significantly increasing Tomahawk’s responsiveness and flexibility.
Providing sustained, sea-based precision firepower guarantees the benefits of effective
massed fires without the need to mass forces physically. The long reach of precision
guided weapons adds a new dimension in the ways the Navy can affect conflict ashore.
In short, the 21st Century Navy will be equipped to deliver offensive distributed
firepower from long range for extended periods, with reduced risk.
Theater Ballistic Missile Defense (TBMD): Recent events emphasize the growing need
for a theater ballistic missile defense (TBMD). Pakistan’s test of the medium-range
Ghauri ballistic missile, North Korea’s test of a three-stage, solid fueled Taepo Dong
missile, and Iran’s test of the medium-range Shahab-3 underscored the compelling
requirement for an effective, forward deployed TBMD capability. Today, more than 20
nations have a ballistic missile or cruise missile capability. In addition, 20 nations have,
or are thought to be developing, nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons. The Navy is
attempting to leverage the impressive power of the Aegis cruiser-destroyer force in ways
that will provide safety and sanctuary for U.S. and allied troops. Through the power of
the Aegis SPY radar and the capabilities of the Standard Missile (SM-2), the Navy is
working to provide a reliable theater missile defense network that will act as a protective
umbrella for operations in most scenarios.
The mission of the Navy’s Area TBMD system is to provide U.S. and allied forces, as
well as areas of vital national interest, defense against TBMs. Rapid deployability of
Navy TBMD reduces the requirement for airlift to be devoted to TBMD forces in the
opening days of a crisis. This permits using scarce airlift resources to transport aircraft
squadron logistics, anti-armor, and troops to deter or stop a conflict. Finally, Navy Area
TBMD takes advantage of the inherent flexibility and mobility of naval forces to provide
defense against ballistic missiles without reliance on host-nation permission or support.
The Navy Theater Wide (NTW) effort evolves from the Navy Area TBMD Program and consists of modifications to the Aegis weapon system and the integration of the Lightweight Exoatmospheric Projectile (LEAP) with a three-stage SM-2 Block IV missile. The NTW system will be capable of high-altitude exoatmospheric intercepts of medium- and longer-range TBMs. The near term development approach includes nine Aegis-LEAP intercept tests from 1998 to 2000 and parallel risk-reduction activities in preparation for engineering development.
Necessary to winning any littoral conflict is securing control of the air. The Navy is
developing an afloat Area Air Defense Commander (AADC) system to support sea-based
theater battlespace management. AADC will support the joint commander in conducting
near-real-time, area-wide air defense planning in support of joint operations. Using
commercial, off-the-shelf hardware, a prototype is capable of executing 56 billion
instructions per second. This computing power enables the testing of alternative air
defense plans to support the commander with the very best disposition of air defense
forces. The use of three-dimensional symbology in tactical displays provides
unprecedented situational awareness to the embarked joint commander and staff. A
prototype will be installed in USS Shiloh (CG-67) in early 1999 for at-sea testing. An
Initial Operational Capability (IOC) is anticipated in FY 01. Twelve Aegis cruisers will
be outfitted with this capability between FY 04 and FY 07, in accordance with the Cruiser Modernization
Mine Warfare: The Department of the Navy is investing now to equip carrier battle
groups and amphibious ready groups with organic minehunting and mine-clearance
capabilities. Variants of the H-60 helicopter will carry minehunting sensors and
neutralization gear such as the Airborne Laser Mine Detection System, the Shallow
Water Influence Mine Sweeping System, and the Airborne Mine Neutralization System.
Instead of waiting for dedicated mine-warfare assets to arrive, the commander will have
mine detection and avoidance systems at his disposal. The tactical information and tools
needed to allow freedom of action and dominant maneuver of his force in the face of a
dangerous, cheaply deployed mine threat will now be on station. The ultimate goal of deploying organic mine warfare systems is to extend maritime domination into the littorals by minimizing the
effectiveness of the most asymmetric and prevalent sea threat there, the sea mine.
The Navy’s Underwater Unmanned Vehicle (UUV) program has focused on developing a
Near-Term Mine Reconnaissance System (NRMS) for Los Angeles class submarines.
The NRMS will provide limited, stopgap operational capability to conduct clandestine
mine reconnaissance. Subsequently, a Long Range Mine Reconnaissance System
(LMRS), which will replace NMRS, will fully meet the requirements to conduct
clandestine mine reconnaissance from submarines.
Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW): ASW is essential to sea control and maritime
dominance. As such, it is a critical element in attaining joint objectives from the sea.
Many nations can employ submarines to deny access to forward regions or significantly
delay the execution of operations plans. Because of its inherent stealth, lethality, and
affordability, the submarine is a powerful counter to an adversary’s surveillance and
targeting systems that increasingly will hold surface assets at risk. Although the
worldwide inventory of submarines has declined, their quality and lethality have
The Navy is sustaining efforts to counter our adversaries’ submarines. A key
requirement is an architecture that can maximize commonality among all ASW platforms
for both effectiveness and affordability. Multi-static active detection systems will
employ advanced processing and leverage legacy ASW systems. The use of rapidly
deployable, distributed arrays, like that being developed in the Advanced Deployable
System program, will provide wide-area deployable shallow water undersea surveillance
in the complex littoral environment. The Lightweight Hybrid Torpedo for surface and air
ASW forces and the CBASS upgrade to the Advanced Capability torpedo (ADCAP) for
submarines will offer the Navy improved weapon effectiveness against littoral submarine
targets and countermeasures. In this regard, the Virginia class attack submarine is
designed for multi-mission operations, but will have a level of stealth unsurpassed by any
other submarine currently in operation or under development.
These are just a few of the programs, augmented by sustained and focused research-and-
development efforts that will ensure our continued undersea warfare superiority against a
continually evolving submarine threat.
Naval forces use space systems to support tactical warfighting needs, including
communications, reconnaissance, surveillance, targeting, battle damage assessment,
navigation, and environmental monitoring. This tactical focus characterizes naval efforts in space. Our maritime
forces, operating in accordance with strategies and tactics which emphasize
maneuverability and joint operations tailored to national needs, and operating forward,
from the sea, necessitate naval dependence upon space-based support.
Marine Corps Core Competencies
MAGTF operations are built upon a foundation of six special core competencies. The
direct result of more than 223 years of expeditionary experience, these six core
competencies define the essence of the unique Marine institutional culture as well as their
role within the national military establishment. Core competencies are developed from
inherent Marine missions, such as expeditionary amphibious operations, and drive
Marines to develop specific sets of skills while executing special roles and missions.
The first core competency, expeditionary readiness, defines an institution ready to
respond instantaneously to world-wide crises, every day. This requires a force that can
transition from peacetime to combat operations at a moment’s notice, and achieve certain
success without critical Reserve augmentation. It also demands a force that can flourish
under adverse conditions and in ambiguous conflict environments. Finally, it means
being ready to defeat the opponent-after-next, which can be achieved only through
continued investment in experimentation, adaptation, and change.
The second core competency is combined-arms operations. The MAGTF requires an
organic, combined-arms capability. For half a century, MAGTFs have been organized,
trained, and equipped to ensure that their ground combat, air combat, and combat service support capabilities would be directed by a single commander.
Expeditionary operations, the third core competency, is primarily a special mind set —
one that ensures that Marines will be prepared for immediate deployment overseas into
austere operating environments.
The fourth core competency, sea-based operations, provides extraordinary strategic
reach, and gives the nation an enduring means to influence and shape the evolving
international environment. An appropriately prepared and equipped combined-arms
MAGTF, operating from a mobile, protected seabase, provides the National Command Authorities with unimpeded and politically unencumbered access to potential trouble spots around the globe.
The Marines are best known for their fifth core competency, forcible entry. In the past,
forcible entry from the sea was defined as amphibious assaults, establishing lodgments on
the beach and then building up combat power ashore for subsequent operations. It is now
defined as an uninterrupted movement of forces from ships located over the horizon
directly against decisive objectives.
The sixth core competency of reserve integration captures the practice of augmenting and
reinforcing active component units with the Marine Reserve in crisis-response missions
and adding to combat power for sustained operations. All Marines are combat-ready, and the integration of Reserve elements into the active duty force structure ensures that the phrase “Total Force” is not a hollow boast.
These core competencies are not honed to perfection without relevant and applicable
concepts, and concepts cannot be realized without mutually reinforcing warfighting
assets. By modernizing and tailoring the amphibious fleet, over-the-horizon launch
platforms will be provided to support the MV-22 Osprey aircraft, the short-takeoff and
vertical-landing (STOVL) variant of the Joint Strike Fighter, the Advanced Amphibious
Assault Vehicle, and the already proven Landing Craft Air-Cushion. The following
program elements are essential to the Marine Corps’ future ability to execute
Operational Maneuver From the Sea and Ship-to-Objective Maneuver.
Sea-Based Forcible-Entry Operations: The MV-22 Osprey remains the Marine Corps’ highest aviation acquisition priority and is necessary to conduct sea-based forcible entry
operations. Recognizing the huge operational advantages of this aircraft, the Marines
have long championed the development of tilt-rotor technology. The development of the
MV-22 compares with earlier technological breakthroughs associated with the first
helicopter and the first jet engine, and gives the Marine Corps the range to cover a much greater expanse of the littorals from the sea. The MV-22 flies significantly farther, faster, and with greater payloads than the current fleet of aging medium lift CH-46E/CH-53D helicopters.
This combat multiplier allows Marines to strike rapidly at objectives located deep inland.
It provides Navy ships adequate stand-off distance to defend against shore-based
missiles, sea mines, and other asymmetric threats, and also delays detection of the
striking force. Initial operational capability for the Osprey is expected to occur in FY 01.
Amphibious Modernization Program: The amphibious lift modernization plan also
supports Marine Corps core competencies. The program is focused on the formation of
the 12 Amphibious Ready Groups (ARGs) needed to meet the nation’s forward-presence and contingency response requirements, and it supports the lifting equivalent of 2.5 Marine Expeditionary Brigades in wartime. The plan shapes the future amphibious force with the optimum number and type of ships required for a flexible and adaptive combined-arms crisis-response capability. Ultimately, the amphibious force will consist of 12 LHA/Ds (Tarawa and Wasp classes), 12 LPD-17s (San Antonio class), and 12 LSD-41/49s (Whidbey Island and Harpers Ferry class), capable of forming 12 ARGs or operating independently in a “split-ARG” concept of operations.
The San Antonio class (LPD-17) is a critical link in attaining the goal of a modern 12-
ARG amphibious force. The LPD-17 will be a significant improvement in ameliorating
current vehicle stowage shortfalls and meeting other MAGTF lift requirements. The
LPD-17 will carry 700 embarked troops and two LCACs, while providing 25,000 square feet of vehicle stowage space, 36,000 cubic feet of cargo space and the capacity to accommodate four CH-46 helicopter or a mix of the other rotary wing Marine aircraft. The LPD-17 will have a robust communications network including narrow- and wide-band satellite communications and the ability to connect directly to the Tactical Telephone System used by ground units ashore via the Switch Multiplexer Unit (SMU). The LPD-17’s communication suite will provide multiple pathways to and from the theater both while the ARG is combined and operating in the “split-ARG” mode.
The Tarawa class LHAs will begin to reach the end of their expected service life in 2011.
A Development of Options Study (DOS) conducted by the Center for Naval Analyses
(CNA) is underway to determine the best course of action to preserve the land attack and
sea control/power projection missions of our large deck amphibious ships. There are three alternatives being considered: (a) LHA service life extension; (b) a modification of the Wasp class LHD, designated LHD 8; and (c) a new ship designated the LHX.
An essential component in implementing Ship-to-Objective Maneuver is the Advanced
Amphibious Assault Vehicle, or AAAV. Currently in its demonstration and validation
phase, the AAAV will allow rapid, high-speed transportation of Marine combat units
directly from amphibious assault ships — located well beyond the visual horizon – to objectives located well inland. This will effectively eliminate the need for an operational pause to build up combat power on the beachhead. When fielding begins in FY 06, the AAAV will be the most modern and capable amphibious vehicle in the world. The AAAV will have capabilities comparable to infantry fighting vehicles.
Force protection against TBMs and land-attack cruise missiles is a critical component of
future forcible entry operations. Scheduled for Fleet operation in FY 99, the AN/TPS-
59(V)3 is the Marine Corps advanced three-dimensional, long-range radar, and is the
MAGTF’s primary means of detecting, identifying, tracking, and reporting on all aircraft
and missiles within the MAGTF area of responsibility. This improved radar provides
land-based air surveillance for the Marine component of a naval force, and will contribute
to the Navy’s Cooperative Engagement Capability. This system is also capable of
detecting and tracking multiple theater ballistic missiles, with point of origin/point of
impact calculations in support of theater missile defense.
Combined–Arms Operations: The Short Takeoff or Vertical Landing variant of the Joint
Strike Fighter is critical to conducting combined-arms operations in the future. The
Marine Corps depends heavily upon the use of fully integrated air support in combined-
arms and expeditionary warfare. This approach reinforces expeditionary warfare by
radically reducing dependence upon limited armor and artillery assets. The JSF will
replace the Marine AV-8B Harrier and F/A-18 Hornet aircraft, and is scheduled to reach
the initial operating capability phase in 2010. JSF first delivery of USMC VSTOL type is
planned for FY 08.
The lightweight 155mm towed howitzer (LW155) will replace the aging M198 155mm
towed howitzer as the only artillery system in the Marine Corps inventory. The LW155
is designed for expeditionary operations requiring light, highly mobile artillery, and will be transportable by MV-22 Osprey and CH-53E aircraft. The howitzer’s lighter weight
and automated breech, rammer, and digital fire control computer will provide the
MAGTF commander with increased responsiveness and efficiency. The program is in
the engineering and manufacturing development
phase, with initial operational capability scheduled in FY 03.
Predator is a one-man portable, fire-and-forget missile system capable of defeating the
next generation of advanced armor threats. This system is “soft-launch” capable, which
allows it to be fired from within an enclosure. Additionally, its fly-over, shoot-down
profile gives it an effective range between 17 and 600 meters. The Predator begins
production in FY 01 for an initial operational capability in FY 03 and a full operational
capability in FY 08.
Naval Command and Control Systems
The advance of digital technology has had no greater impact than in the field of command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR). The capabilities provided by modern C4ISR systems dramatically changed the way conflicts will be resolved. An innovative, efficient, and well-coordinated approach to technology infusion is necessary to establish connectivity for joint warfare.
Command and control afloat is the foundation upon which future naval operations will be built. This vision requires an integrated and comprehensive command/control structure to facilitate decisive events ashore. Technologically, this will require superior sensors and fast and powerful networks that are integrated with deadly weapon systems. Four of the most prominent C4ISR initiatives include:
Extending the Littoral Battlespace Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ELB ACTD): The requirements for the ELB ACTD grew out of the Defense Science Board
(DSB) Summer ‘96 Study, Tactics and Techniques for 21st Century Military Superiority. This study recommended the establishment of a joint expeditionary force that is light,
agile, potent, and distributed. The focus of the ACTD is the integration of advances in
information technology with industry, the Services and Defense Agencies to expedite the implementation of the advanced warfighting concepts outlined in Forward...From The Sea, Operational Maneuver From The Sea, and Joint Vision 2010.
Global Command and Control System - Maritime (GCCS-M): GCCS-M is the Navy’s
designated command-and-control (C2) system for entering the 21st Century. A key
enabler of the Navy’s IT-21 Network Centric Warfare initiative, GCCS-M follows an
evolutionary acquisition process to meet emerging fleet requirements rapidly. This
system supports C2 and tactical intelligence warfighting requirements for afloat, ashore, and tactical/mobile units. GCCS-M provides timely, accurate, and complete all-source
C4ISR information management and develops a common operational picture for warfare
mission assessment, planning, and execution. The current version of the system software
is using the same core software as the joint GCCS and MAGTF C4I systems. This fielded version also
initiates the long-term migration from UNIX workstation to PC hardware.
Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC): CEC is a weapons-control network that uses
revolutionary sensor netting technology to exchange raw sensor measurement data to
develop composite air tracks. This capability expands the battlespace and provides
increased situational awareness to the operators. CEC is the foundation network for the
development of a single integrated air picture, which is vital to air dominance in the
littoral. CEC also will allow warfighters to make maximum use of advanced surface-to-
The increasingly complex threats in the air-defense arena make it necessary to link
geographically dispersed sensors of differing capabilities with all
potential firing platforms. CEC acts as a force multiplier in that each firing platform
benefits from a force-wide netted sensor input. In addition, the
ability to build force-wide composite tracks means that every participating unit has an identical, real-time tactical picture. Installation of the system in the E-2C Hawkeye aircraft will greatly expand the CEC envelope to include the ability to conduct overland engagement of cruise missiles. Further, the E-2C CEC installation, part of the Hawkeye 2000 Program, will allow more widely dispersed fleet units to reap the full benefits of this enhanced capability. CEC achieved initial operational capability in late-September 1996, and was deployed in the Eisenhower battle group in 1998. The Navy continues to work with the Army and Air Force to expand CEC applications in the joint arena.
Tactical Combat Operations (TCO) System: TCO is an automated capability for
processing battlefield information. Achieving its initial operating capability in FY 96, the
TCO System provides the Marines the same automated operations system currently used
by the Navy. This system is built around GCCS-M, which brings a major increase in interoperability to the services. Currently, the Marine Expeditionary Force and Marine Expeditionary Unit headquarters elements have an interim capability, with a full operational capability expected at the end of FY 99.
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