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Subsurface

ADS
Advanced Deployable System

Artist concept of the Advanced Deployable System (ADS)

Description: ADS is a rapidly deployable, short-term, large-area undersea surveillance system, designed to detect, locate and report quiet conventional (diesel-electric and air-independent propulsion) and nuclear submarines operating in shallow-water littoral environments. The system will also have some capability to detect mine-laying activity and to track surface contacts. ADS will consist of a Processing and Analysis Segment (PAS), which is connected to the ADS sensor field by a shore cable and contained in reusable, transportable vans; and an Underwater Segment (UWS), which is an expendable battery-powered, wide-area field of passive undersea surveillance arrays. ADS will provide threat location information directly to tactical forces and contribute to the real-time, accurate and reliable maritime picture provided to the Joint Force Commander. System segments can be forward-positioned in a standardized, modular ISO-van configuration to allow on-scene forces to deploy ADS rapidly to areas where surveillance is needed to maintain undersea battlespace dominance. By operating in an unobserved, covert fashion, ADS can provide indications and warning of potentially hostile maritime activity well prior to commencement of hostilities. Existing Undersea Surveillance System (USS) processing software and display formats will form the core of the ADS shore signal-processing segment. COTS technologies and NDI are being emphasized to maximize cost effectiveness.

Program Status: ADS is in the Engineering Manufacturing Development phase. In May 1999, an ADS prototype completed a highly successful Fleet Exercise Test by demonstrating the capability to detect and track a quiet diesel-electric submarine and provide real-time cueing information to tactical platforms. A Milestone II decision was granted in February 2000. The program incrementally develops capability beginning with a Barrier in FY 2004 and a Field in FY 2007. This incremental approach was required to remain within existing resources and to meet competing requirements. Congress added funding in FY 2000 enabling the concurrent TECHEVAL/OPEVAL of two installation capabilities in FY 2004 rather than a split-TECHEVAL/OPEVAL of these capabilities in FY 2004/2005. Congress also added funding in FY 2001 to accelerate Large Field processing development.

Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin Federal Systems, Manassas, Virginia; Raytheon Systems, Portsmouth, Rhode Island; DSR, Fairfax, Virginia; and ORINCON, San Diego, California.

BLQ-10 ESM
Submarine Electronic
Support Measures

US Navy sailors working with the AN/BLQ-10 SIGNIT system

Description: The AN/BLQ-10 system will be the advanced signals intelligence (SIGINT) system for the Los Angeles (SSN-688), Seawolf (SSN-21), and Virginia (SSN-774) classes. It will support operations in both the open ocean and the complex littoral signals environment. The system consists of signal sensors, receivers, displays, advanced processing, and analysis equipment. SIGINT provides detection, identification (including specific emitter identification capability), analysis, and direction-finding for radar and communication signals emanating from ships, aircraft, submarines, and other emitters. SIGINT equipment is used by attack submarines to aid in self-protection, situational awareness, and, when augmented with special carry-on SIGINT equipment, intelligence gathering.

Program Status: The AN/BLQ-10 SIGINT System entered development in October 1994. The Engineering Development Model completed an operational deployment on board the USS Annapolis (SSN-760) in 2000. The first backfit production shipset was installed on USS Tucson (SSN 770) in 2001.

Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin, Syracuse, New York.

BQQ-10 A-RCI
Acoustic Rapid COTS Insertion

Improved display screen installed under the A-RCI Program

Description: Acoustic Rapid COTS Insertion is a three-phase program that replaces existing legacy submarine sonar systems, including BQQ-5 (SSN-688), BSY-1 (SSN-688I), BSY-2 (SSN-21), and BQQ-6 (SSBN-726) SONARs, with a more capable and flexible COTS-based Open Systems Architecture (OSA), and provides the submarine force with a common sonar system. A single A-RCI Multi-Purpose Processor (MPP) has twice as much computing power as today's entire submarine fleet (SSN-688/688I/21/726 class) combined. It allows development and use of complex algorithms that were previously well beyond the capability of legacy processors. The use of COTS/OSA technologies and systems will enable frequent periodic updates to both software and hardware with little or no impact on submarine scheduling. COTS-based processors allow computer power growth at nearly the same rate as commercial industry. A key facet of the sonar A-RCI program (now designated AN/BQQ-10) includes the Submarine Precision Underwater Mapping and Navigation (PUMA) upgrade. This consists of software processing improvements delivered as part of Advanced Processor Build (APB) 02, to the AN/BQQ-10 High Frequency (HF, A-RCI Phase IV) and AN/BQS-15 EC-19 (SSN-688 only) sonar systems. This enhancement provides submarines with the capability to map the ocean floor and register geographic features, including mine-like detections, and display the map in a 3-D representation. This capability to precisely map the ocean floor allows submarines to conduct covert battlespace preparation of the sea bottom as well as minefield surveillance and avoidance, with impunity. These digital maps can be compressed and transmitted to other naval forces for display on sea-borne and land-based platforms.

ARCI improves the visibility of contacts for the operator

Program Status: A-RCI Phase II (FY 1999) provided substantial towed and hull array software and hardware processing upgrades that significantly improved LF detection capability. Phase III (FY 2001) augments the current Spherical Array DIMUS beamformer with a linear beamformer and enhanced processing that improves MF detection capability. Phase IV (FY 2001) upgrades the HF sonar on late-generation, Improved Los Angeles-class submarines (SSN-688I). Each phase installs improved processing and workstations (point click trackballs, Windows environment). Recent, real-world encounters have consistently demonstrated overwhelming success of this program to restore U.S. acoustic superiority. The BQQ-10 sonar system is being installed as rapidly as possible given the available funding.

Additional funding will accelerate vital improvements to towed array processing in support of fleet operations, accelerated delivery of organic mine countermeasures (MCM) capability inherent in A-RCI Phase IV and PUMA, and completing Phase III upgrades for all submarines.

Navy research, development, test, and evaluation will continue to develop processing algorithms from the surveillance, tactical and advanced RD communities, perform laboratory and at-sea testing, and distribute upgrades periodically. Congressional support for additional MPP development has allowed the Navy to leverage the Submarine Force's leading edge developments across a broader range of anti-submarine warfare and undersea surveillance systems through the Navy Common Acoustic Processor (NCAP) program. Development of PUMA remains on schedule and will complete late in 2001. Backfit of this capability will begin in FY 2002 and will be complete on all Los Angeles-class submarines in FY 2006.

Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin, Manassas, Virginia; Digital Systems Resources, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia; and Advanced Research Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin.

FDS-C
Fixed Distributed System-COTS

Description: FDS-C is a developmental, Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) version of the existing long-term, passive acoustic fixed surveillance FDS system. FDS-C will continue to provide threat location information to tactical forces and contribute to an accurate maritime picture for the Joint Force Commander, and due to its strategic positioning and long lifetime, will provide indication and warning of hostile maritime activity before conflicts begin.

Both FDS and FDS-C consist of a series of arrays deployed on the ocean floor in deep-ocean areas, across straits and other chokepoints, or in strategic shallow-water littoral areas. The system is made up of two segments: the Shore Signal and Information Processing Segment (SSIPS) that handles the processing, display, and communication functions and the Underwater Segment consisting of a large-area distributed field of acoustic arrays. FDS-C was developed as a less-expensive follow-on version of FDS by converting to COTS equipment. Taking advantage of advances made in the commercial industry will provide a much more cost-effective FDS-caliber system to meet the Fleet's ongoing needs for long-term undersea surveillance. Additionally, the program is pursuing the development of other technologies, such as an all-fiber-optic hydrophone passive array, to further increase system reliability and performance at reduced cost.

Program Status: A contract has been awarded for the production phase for the first of the next generation of underwater systems (FDS-C). Congress provided additional funding in Fiscal Year 2001 to develop an all-optical array.

Developers/Manufacturer: General Dynamics, Greensboro, North Carolina; Lockheed Martin Federal Systems, Manassas, Virginia; and Raytheon Systems, Portsmouth, Rhode Island.

TB-29A
Submarine Thin-Line Towed Array

An artists concept of a US SSN trailing a TB-29A Thin Line Towed Array (TB-29)

Description: The TB-29A submarine thin-line towed array is a COTS version of the legacy TB-29 towed array. These arrays will be used for back-fit on Los Angeles (SSN-688 and SSN-688I) and Seawolf (SSN-21) submarines and forward-fit on the Virginia (SSN-774) class. TB-29A will also be used for the SURTASS Twin-line towed array system. It will provide greater capability than the current TB-23 Thin Line towed arrays and achieve enhanced supportability through commonality. TB-29A uses COTS telemetry to significantly reduce unit cost while maintaining superior array performance. These arrays were recently tested with SURTASS ships and will support the IUSS community starting in FY 2004. Coupled with the submarine A-RCI system, TB-29A arrays are expected to provide the same 400-500 percent increase in detection capability against quiet submerged platforms in blue-water and shallow-water areas, as the current TB-29 has demonstrated recently.

Program Status: OPEVAL is scheduled for FY 2002 and OPEVAL for FY 2002. The first three arrays will be delivered to the Fleet in early FY 2002. With both Lockheed Martin and L3 Communications manufacturing the TB-29A, the production capacity is now double that of a year ago. Procurement rates are limited only by available funding. As a result of balancing priorities within current limited fiscal resources, the introduction rate of these arrays to the fleet and the handler upgrades necessary to support TB-29 array capability is constrained.

Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin, Syracuse, New York and L3 Communications, Sylmar, California.

UUVs
Unmanned Undersea Vehicles

Photo of a prototype NMRS being lowered into the water

Description: Several acquisition programs are ongoing within the Navy to field unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) systems to improve upon current Navy capabilities in enabling assured access. The Navy's Unmanned Undersea Vehicle plan highlights rapid development and deployment of a covert mine reconnaissance capability. The Long-Term Mine Reconnaissance System (LMRS)- in development in late 2001 and scheduled to enter service in FY 2005-will provide a robust, long-term capability to conduct clandestine minefield reconnaissance. The LMRS will include many significantly improved capabilities, including submarine launch and recovery as well as an autonomous operation endurance of more than 40 hours. Pre-Planned Product Improvment (P3I) enhancements are being pursued to expand LMRS capabilities in the areas of Precision Underwater Mapping and Navigation, Synthetic Aperture Sonar and high-density renewable energy sources.

The Mission Reconfigurable UUV, an outgrowth of the LMRS program, is scheduled to begin development in FY 2004. This system is envisioned to build upon the LMRS design and mission by providing "plug and play" sensor packages for potential missions such as Intelligence/Surveillance/Reconnaissance (electro-magnetic and electro-optical ISR, and Indications and Warning), Tactical Oceanography, Remote ASW tracking, and monitoring for weapons of mass destruction.
An artists concept of NMRS operations from a US SSN

Several small UUV programs are ongoing to deliver capabilities to reconnoiter and map near shore areas of the littorals for mines and minefields, including the Naval Special Warfare Semi-autonomous Hydrographic Reconnaissance Vehicle (SAHRV) System, and the Very Shallow Water Mine Countermeasures Search-Classify-Map (S-C-M), and Reacquire-Identify-Neutralize UUV systems. These small UUV systems are designed for deployment, primarily from small boats, and are intended to be low-visible platforms to enhance hydrographic reconnaissance and mine countermeasures capabilities in very shallow water areas where other larger platforms cannot operate effectively. The utility of expanding the role of small UUVs to provide antiterrorist and force protection missions in harbors and berthing areas is being examined.

Program Status: The LMRS completed Detail Design in August 1999 and in FY 2000-2001 is in the EMD Phase. The SAHRV program recently completed Operational Evaluation and is scheduled to be delivered to the Naval Special Warfare force beginning this fiscal year. An initial operational capability for the VSW MCM Detachment S-C-M UUV system is programmed for fiscal year 2005.

Developer/Manufacturer: LMRS: Boeing, Anaheim, California. SAHRV: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.


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