Description: The AH-1W is a two-place, twin-engine attack helicopter capable of land- or sea-based operations. It provides rotary-wing close air support (CAS), anti-armor/anti-helicopter, armed escort, armed and visual reconnaissance, and supporting arms coordination (SAC) during day/night and adverse weather conditions. The UH-1N is a combat utility helicopter that provides airborne command and control, SAC, medical evacuation, maritime special operations, and search and rescue, also during day/night and adverse weather conditions.
The H-1 upgrade program involves conversion of both the AH-1 and UH-1 from a two-bladed rotor system to a four-bladed system, referred to as "4BW" and "4BN," respectively. The upgrade program is designed to resolve existing safety issues in both aircraft, zero airframe time, reduce life-cycle costs, significantly enhance combat capability, and achieve 85% commonality between aircraft. Major modifications include: a new rotor system with semi-automatic blade fold, new composite main and four-bladed tail rotor, upgraded drive system and landing gear, and pylon structural modifications. The 4BW/4BN aircraft will have increased maneuverability, speed and range, and payload capability. Additionally, both aircraft will incorporate a newly designed, fully integrated, common cockpit that will reduce operator workload and improve situational awareness.
Program Status: The Preliminary Design Review (PDR) was approved in June 1997; the Critical Design Review (CDR) is scheduled for August 1998. Low-Rate Initial Production (LRIP) will begin in the second quarter FY 2002, and Milestone III is slated for the second quarter FY 2004. Five Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) aircraft will be produced, four of which will eventually become fleet assets and one aircraft (absent integrated avionics suite) will be used for Live Fire Test and Evaluation (LFT&E).
Developer/Manufacturer: Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc., Fort Worth, Texas.
AV-8B Harrier II+ Tactical Aircraft Remanufacture
Description: The AV-8B Harrier is a single-seat, light attack aircraft that provides offensive air support to the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF). By virtue of its Vertical/Short Take-Off or Landing (V/STOL) capability, the AV-8B can operate from a variety of amphibious ships, rapidly constructed expeditionary airfields, forward sites (e.g., roads), and damaged conventional airfields. This makes the aircraft particularly well-suited for providing
dedicated close air support.
Three variants of the aircraft are in service: the Day Attack, Night Attack, and Radar/Night Attack Harrier . The Night Attack Harrier improved upon the original AV-8B design through incorporation of a Navigation, Forward-Looking InfraRed (NAVFLIR) sensor, a moving map, night vision goggle compatibility, and a higher performance engine. The current Radar/Night Attack Harrier , or Harrier II+, has all the improvements of the Night Attack aircraft plus the AN/APG-65 multimode radar. The fusion of night and radar capabilities allows the Harrier to be responsive to the MAGTF's needs for expeditionary, night and adverse weather, offensive air support.
The ongoing "remanufacture" program, in which 72 Day-Attack aircraft from the existing inventory are being rebuilt to the Radar/ Night Attack standard, extends the service life of these Harrier aircraft into the next century, and greatly improves their warfighting capabilities. Existing Harrier s are also being upgraded through the use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) technology. The Open Systems-Common Architecture program will replace the existing Harrier mission computer with a COTS system that is affordable and easily upgraded and maintained. The aircraft's weapons and communications systems will continue to be upgraded until it is replaced by the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF).
Program Status: The AV-8B is scheduled to remain in service until the introduction of replacement aircraft in 2015. Twenty-eight new Marine Corps Harrier II+ aircraft have been delivered. To remain responsive to fleet needs, older Day Attack AV-8Bs are being remanufactured to the Radar/Night Attack Harrier II+ standard. Plans call for 72 Harrier s to undergo remanufacture through FY 2001, reusing major assemblies and components of the Day Attack aircraft in combination with new production structure, systems, and engines. Eight remanufactured aircraft were delivered to the Fleet by the end of 1997. In addition, the Marine Corps is considering remanufacture of an additional 24 aircraft, to be completed by CY 2003.
Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, St. Louis, Missouri.
Fleet Combat Support Helicopter
Description: The CH-60 Fleet Combat Support Helicopter will complement and eventually replace the Navy's aging fleet of H-46 helicopters. As a result of the advanced airframe life of the H-46 fleet, the Navy's
logistics helicopter force is experiencing a near-term inventory shortfall. The replacement aircraft must satisfy all the requirements of the current aircraft and remain compatible with all current and future CLF ships. This will be a Non- Developmental Item (NDI) program that will provide commonality with existing integrated logistics systems and fleet trainers is desirable. The CH-60 is the future aircraft for combat search and rescue, special operations, and logistics helicopter forces in the Navy. Combining the tested and battle-proven U.S. Army
UH-60 Blackhawk fuselage and Navy SH-60 Seahawk dynamic components, the CH-60 promises to be a superb aircraft. The commonality bred into the helicopter not only contributes to mission effectiveness, but will provide logistics and acquisition efficiencies. The CH-60 is the linchpin of the Navy Helicopter Master Plan. Out-year buys of additional aircraft will replace H-46s as they retire and increase standardization for training, maintenance, and operations as older SH-3s, UH-1Ns, and potentially MH-53s are replaced. Commercial outsourcing alternatives are also being addressed.
Program Status: The first demonstration aircraft was built in FY 1997 and first flew in October 1997. Preliminary testing has completed and the demonstration aircraft met all expectations. The Navy has since joined in a multi-service, multi-year procurement with the Army. Production development will begin in FY 1998, and the
Navy intends to take delivery of its first CH-60 in late FY 1999. The Navy will assume the lead in FY 2000 when it plans procurement of 18-20 aircraft. The Navy plans to buy up to 237 of these aircraft; six have been requested in FY 1999.
Developer/Manufacturer: Sikorsky, Stratford, Connecticut; General Electric, Lynn, Massachusetts; and Lockheed Martin, Oswego, New York.
CSA Common Support Aircraft
Description: The Common Support Aircraft (CSA) will serve as the Navy's carrier-based surveillance, control, and support aircraft for the 21st century, replacing S-3B, ES-3A, E-2C, and C-2A aircraft. The CSA will be able to carry different mission suites of sensors and avionics in order to fulfill future mission requirements and will possess significant capacity for logistics support and aerial refueling. It will facilitate naval fires in the joint warfare battlespace with fused tactical data obtained from both on- and off-board sensors and with its organic warfighting capability.
Program Status: The CSA Feasibility Study concluded in November 1997, and determined that a single airframe platform concept is technically and economically feasible. During Phase 1, the study defined future mission requirements using specialized, top-down methodologies based on joint military objectives. In Phase 2, the study evaluated several design possibilities and requirements of a single airframe vehicle and estimated force structure needs based on the latest warfare scenarios. Additionally, the study assessed the warfighting applicability of various technologies. Mission Need Statement (MNS) was submitted in early 1998 and was pending official approval.
Developer/Manufacturer: To be determined.
Airborne Early Warning Group II Program
Description: The E-2C Hawkeye is the Navy and Marine Corps airborne surveillance and command-and-control platform, providing battle management and support of decisive power projection at sea and ashore in a joint operational architecture. In addition to current capabilities, the E-2C has an active and extensive upgrade and development program to prepare it to be a critical element in an overall joint theater and missile defense program.
The Hawkeye force is keeping pace with changing tactical environments via two major upgrades: the E-2C Group II upgrade, and the Radar Modernization Program (RMP). The most advanced Hawkeye variant currently in production, the E-2C Group II, features:
Extended radar range (40% greater than previous E-2 aircraft)
Improved overland detection capability
Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS), Global Positioning System (GPS), and voice satellite communications
The next upgrade, the Hawkeye 2000, will install a Mission Computer Upgrade (MCU) and Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC), enhancing the E-2's capabilities in the multiple threat environment anticipated in the 21st century. The MCU will improve target detection and tracking, and enable the incorporation of CEC. In turn, CEC-equipped Hawkeye s — the E-2C is the first aircraft in the U.S. aviation arsenal to incorporate this system — will significantly extend the engagement capability of surface forces. The CEC-equipped Hawkeye is the key to early cueing of the Aegis Weapon System, dramatically extending the lethal range of the Standard Missile (SM-2) against airborne low-altitude/low-radar cross section targets.
The Radar Modernization Program is developing an advanced demonstration radar for the Hawkeye that will bring over-the-horizon precision, overland detection, and tracking to the battle group. This, coupled with CEC, will fully integrate the Hawkeye into the Theater Ballistic Missile and Cruise Missile Defense (TBMD/CMD) role. This precision tracking capability, in conjunction with the Aegis and upgraded Standard Missiles (SM-2 Block IVA and SM-3), will allow the battle group to deploy an organic, theater-wide cruise missile and theater ballistic missile defense umbrella for protection of high-priority defended areas and U.S. and coalition forces. Additionally, the E-2's systems are fully interoperable with the Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) and ground-based systems for a seamless transition to a full joint architecture.
The Navy is ensuring that the E-2C continues as the "eyes and ears" of the Fleet as it applies the aircraft's capabilities in the integrated joint, overland, theater-wide air, and missile defense environment. Many of the technological improvements being incorporated in the Hawkeye represent leading-edge improvements, not just in the Navy's theater air and missile defense posture, but in that of all U.S. forces.
Program Status: Milestone III for production restart and Milestone III/II for the MCU were approved in FY 1994. Procurement of 25 aircraft is planned from 1998 to 2003. Aircraft with MCU are undergoing testing at Naval Air Station, Patuxent River, Maryland. Technical and Operational Evaluations are scheduled to begin in 1999. Initial Operational Capability (IOC) for the MCU is scheduled for 1999.
Developer/Manufacturer: Northrop Grumman, Bethpage, New York.
TACAMO / Airborne Command Post Aircraft
Description: The E-6A/B, derived from the Boeing 707, is a command, control, and communications (C3) platform. The E-6A's Take-Charge-and-Move-Out (TACAMO) mission provides multiple C3 links for Emergency Action Message (EAM) relay from the National Command Authority to strategic and nonstrategic operating forces. Designed to support a robust and flexible nuclear deterrence posture into the 21st century, the E-6B is currently incorporating Airborne Command Post (ABCP) equipment from retiring U.S. Air Force EC-135Cs. The first modified aircraft was delivered to the fleet on 14 October 1997.
The TACAMO mission transmits and receives secure and non-secure voice and data at very low/low/high frequencies (VLF/LF/HF) and also via ultra high frequency (UHF) line-of-sight and satellite communications systems. The E-6A can deploy a 28,000-foot trailing-wire antenna and a 5,000-foot short trailing-wire antenna for VLF communications with submerged ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs). With in-flight refueling, the aircraft is capable of providing up to 72 airborne hours of decision-level conferencing, force management, situation monitoring, and communications support. The E-6B retains all E-6A capabilities and adds:
Battle staff compartment for C3 operations and an Airborne Launch Control Center (ALCC)
for ICBM programming and launch
Orbit Improvement System for increased VLF and LF transmit antenna efficiency
GPS for improved navigation and timing signals
Mission Computer System (MCS) provides expanded processing to receive, store, and transmit
messages and provides the control for the MILSTAR antenna
UHF frequency division multiplexing for air/air and air/ground links; six STU-IIIR phones for
secure voice and data transmissions; an LF transmit capability for increased frequency spectrum;
and a MILSTAR EHF/UHF command post terminal for secure, survivable C3
Follow-on improvement programs include a Modified Miniature Receiver Terminal (MMRT) to replace the existing obsolete terminal, a Multi-function Display System (MDS) for meeting Federal Aviation Administration and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) flight management and terminal requirements, and additional satellite C3 capabilities for improved Global Command and Control System interoperability supporting theater Commander-in-Chief (CinC) missions.
Program Status: E-6As became fully operational in 1992, and E-6B Initial Operational Capability (IOC) will occur in 1998. Sixteen aircraft with EC-135 equipment are scheduled for completion by December 2000.
Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, Seattle, Washington; and Raytheon, Waco, Texas.
Electronic Warfare Aircraft
Description: The EA-6B Prowler electronic warfare (EW) aircraft which played a key role in suppressing enemy air defenses during Operation Desert Storm — enhances the strike capabilities not only of carrier air wings but of U.S. Air Force and allied forces as well. The decision to retire the Air Force EF-111A Raven EW aircraft and to assign all Department of Defense radar jamming missions to the Prowler adds to the significance of the EA-6B in joint warfare. With its jamming and High-Speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) capability, the Prowler is a unique national asset that will be deployed from land bases and aircraft carriers. Its ability to monitor the electromagnetic spectrum and actively deny an adversary's use of radar and communications is unmatched by any airborne platform worldwide.
Program Status: In the coming years, the Prowler fleet will be modernized and upgraded to keep the aircraft and its systems abreast of evolving threats and to maintain aircraft safety. The Block 89A upgrade program (which is currently in testing and is expected to reach Initial Operational Capability (IOC) in FY 2000) will address structural and supportability problems associated with aging aircraft, and includes numerous avionics improvements for safety of flight and joint interoperability. Later improvements to the Prowler 's AN/ALQ-99 tactical jamming system — including the Improved Capabilities (ICAP) III upgrade (which is entering development and is expected to reach IOC in FY 2003), new high and low frequency transmitters, and continuing structural enhancements — will ensure that the EA-6B remains the world's premier tactical electronic warfare platform and a force multiplier for years to come.
Developer/Manufacturer: Northrop Grumman, Bethpage, New York.
EP-3E Aries III
Signals Intelligence Aircraft
Description: The EP-3E is the Navy's land-based signals intelligence (SIGINT) reconnaissance aircraft based on the Orion airframe. The 12 aircraft in the Navy's inventory provide fleet and theater commanders worldwide with near real-time tactical SIGINT. With sensitive receivers and high-gain dish antennas, the EP-3E can exploit a wide range of electronic emissions from deep within enemy territory.
Program Status: The Aries is currently undergoing a Sensor System Improvement Program (SSIP) that will enhance its connectivity over a range of command-and-control, communications, and intelligence links. In addition, mission software improvements will link off-board and on-board sensors, creating a fused tactical picture of the battlespace that can be used by the crew or sent in near real-time to other warfighters. The EP-3E will also serve as a Department of Defense prototype for the high-band subsystem of the Joint SIGINT Avionics Family (JSAF). The JSAF program will provide the EP-3E with an open-architecture, state-of-the-art collection system capable of exploiting threat emissions through the year 2010.
The SSIP will be completed by the end of FY 2000. JSAF commences limited production in FY 2001, with one aircraft per year through FY 2003, and thereafter ten aircraft per year until completion in FY 2008.
Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin, Fort Worth, Texas.
F-14A/B/D Tomcat Strike-Fighter Aircraft
Description: The F-14 Tomcat continues to be the Navy's premier long-range fighter. The Tomcat 's "Roadmap for the Future" — a plan to incorporate significant performance improvements during the next two years — makes the Tomcat a superb complement to the Navy's current F/A-18 Hornet aircraft. The F-14 will enable the Navy to maintain the desired force structure of strike-fighter aircraft on each carrier deck until it is replaced by the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet .
The Tomcat has been configured as a potent precision strike-fighter with the incorporation of the Low-Altitude Navigation and Targeting InfraRed for Night (LANTIRN) system. With LANTIRN, the Tomcat has an accurate, autonomous designation and targeting capability for the delivery of laser-guided bombs. This system is effective during day or night and at high altitudes. The first LANTIRN-equipped Tomcat squadron, VF-103, deployed in June 1996 on board the USS Enterprise (CVN-65), and all deploying battle groups now have LANTIRN-capable Tomcats.
In addition to its precision strike capability, the F-14 is being outfitted with enhanced defensive countermeasure systems (BOL chaff and AN/ALR-67 Radar Warning Receiver), night vision capability, and Global Positioning System (GPS). These systems significantly enhance the capability of the Tomcat in the strike-fighter role.
The F-14 outfitted with the Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance Pod System (TARPS) will continue to provide a manned tactical reconnaissance capability. The F-14's "Roadmap" includes the incorporation of a digital imaging and data link capability in 24 TARPS pods to provide battle group, joint force, and allied commanders with near real-time imagery for the detection and identification of tactical targets, and immediate threat and bomb damage assessment.
The F-14's critical role in maintaining air superiority and its ability to launch precision-guided munitions has ensured that the aircraft remains a vital player in the Navy's inventory until its retirement.
Program Status: The F-14D has completed production and is successfully deployed to the Fleet. The F-14B upgrade continues until FY 2000, with 12 aircraft each in FY 1998 and 1999 and six in FY 2000. The strike enhancement program began in FY 1995 and will complete in FY 2000, with 50 aircraft in FY 1998, 24 in FY 1999, and seven in FY 2000.
Developer/Manufacturer: Northrop Grumman, Bethpage, New York.
F/A-18C/D Hornet Fighter/Attack Aircraft
Description: The F/A-18 Hornet is Naval Aviation's principal strike-fighter. This state-of-the-art, multimission aircraft serves in both the Navy and Marine Corps, as well as the armed forces of several allied and friendly countries.
Its reliability and safety records, high performance, and multiple weapons delivery capability have highlighted the Hornet 's success as it surpassed 3,309,000 flight hours in December 1997. Programmed improvements to the original Hornet A/B/C/D variants provide significant warfighting enhancements in the near term, including the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS), Link 16, AIM-9X Sidewinder/Helmet Mounted Cueing System, Combined Interrogator Transponder, Joint Direct Attack Munition/ Joint Stand-Off Weapon (JDAM/JSOW) delivery capability, and a Digital Communication System for close air support. The aircraft's weapons, communications, navigation, and Defensive Electronic Countermeasures systems will also continue to be upgraded.
Program Status: The F/A-18 C/D is ending production and existing aircraft are being upgraded to enhance their current weapons, communications, and reconnaissance systems capabilities and to ensure their continued service into the 21st century.
Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, St. Louis, Missouri; and General Electric, Lynn, Massachusetts.
F/A-18E/F Super Hornet Fighter/Attack Aircraft
Description: The introduction of the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet to the Fleet in 2000 will provide critical growth capacity, weapon bring-back improvements, survivability enhancements, and range/payload improvements, all of which are required to keep the strike-fighter force lethal and viable well into the 21st century. There will be extensive commonality with weapons systems, avionics, and software between F/A-18 variants. The infrastructure needed to support the Super Hornet will build upon existing organizations. Ultimately, the F/A-18E will replace older F/A-18s while the two-seat F/A-18F will replace the F-14. The lethality, flexibility, reliability, and survivability of the F/A-18E/F will make it the right aircraft to fulfill the majority of missions associated with regional and littoral conflicts.
Program Status: The F/A-18 E/F program is in the final year of its three-year Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) phase. Aircraft E-1 completed its first flight on 29 November 1995. The Super Hornet successfully completed sea trials and its first carrier landing in January 1997. Low-Rate Initial Production (LRIP) was approved in March 1997. In early 1998 there were seven test aircraft on site at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland. The program completed more than 1,650 test flights and more than 2,400 flight hours as of March 1998. The Navy has requested 20 Super Hornet s in FY 1999. The first deliveries are scheduled for FY 2001.
Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, St. Louis, Missouri.
JSF Joint Strike Fighter
Description: The Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program, formerly the Joint Advanced Strike Technology (JAST) program, will develop and field a tri-service family of next-generation strike aircraft with an emphasis on affordability. The "family of aircraft" concept allows a high level of commonality while meeting unique service and allied needs. The United Kingdom is a collaborative partner in the program; Denmark, Norway, The Netherlands, and Canada are associated partners.
The focus of the JSF effort is to reduce the costs of developing, producing, and owning these aircraft. The program is accomplishing this by facilitating the services' development of fully validated, affordable operational requirements, and by lowering technical risk by investing in and demonstrating key leveraging technologies and operational concepts prior to the start of Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) in FY 2001.
This joint approach to the JSF's development is anticipated to produce significant savings when compared to the costs of separate programs. The government and industry team is converging on a design concept that, when coupled with other technology "building blocks," will result in continuing U.S. technological superiority at an affordable price.
Program Status: In November 1996, the designs from Lockheed Martin and Boeing were selected to compete in the JSF Concept Demonstration Phase. This phase is ongoing and is designed to lead to an affordable and low-risk transition to the EMD phase in FY 2001. The first operational aircraft will be delivered in FY 2008.
Developer/Manufacturer: Weapon system concept definition and design: Boeing, Seattle, Washington; and Lockheed Martin, Fort Worth, Texas. Propulsion system: Pratt & Whitney, Palm Beach, Florida; and General Electric/Allison Engine Company, Indianapolis, Indiana.
JPATS Joint Primary Aircraft Training System
Description: JPATS is a joint Navy-Air Force program to replace the existing Navy T-34C and the Air Force T-37 aircraft and simulators with a common primary undergraduate pilot training system. The Navy will use this new training system for service-unique intermediate undergraduate pilot training, as well as the primary and intermediate training of Naval Flight Officers (NFOs) and Air Force navigators. (In 1996 the Navy assumed full responsibility for training all Air Force primary and tactical navigators.) The JPATS aircraft has been designated the T-6A Texan II, and is an improved version of the Pilatus PC-9. The T-6A will accommodate more than 90% of the eligible pilot population.
Program Status: The Air Force is the lead service for JPATS. The program passed Milestone II in August 1995 and is scheduled for Milestone III in December 1999. The first production T-6A is scheduled for completion and delivery to the Air Force in 1998. Air Force Initial Operational Capability (IOC) is in FY 2001 and Navy IOC in FY 2003. The Air Force and Navy are scheduled to procure 740 aircraft with the last aircraft being delivered to the Navy in 2017. The Ground Based Training System (GBTS), with its overarching Training Integrated Management System (TIMS), is scheduled to be operational for both services by 2001.
Description: The KC-130 is a multi-role, multimission tactical tanker and transport aircraft, well-suited to the mission needs of the forward-deployed Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF). The Hercules is the only long-range assault support capability organic to the Marine Corps. This aircraft provides both fixed-wing and rotary-wing tactical in-flight refueling; rapid ground refueling of aircraft or tactical vehicles; assault air transport of air-landed or air-delivered personnel, supplies, and equipment; command-and-control augmentation; pathfinder and battlefield illumination; tactical aeromedical evacuation; and search and rescue support. The new KC-130J, with its increase in speed and range, improved air-to-air refueling system, night systems, and survivability enhancements, will provide the MAGTF commander with a state-of-the-art, multimission, tactical aerial refueler/transport well into the 21st century.
Program Status: The KC-130J is a Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) aircraft currently in production. Initial delivery of three aircraft is planned for FY 1999, with two more aircraft to be delivered in FY 2000.
P-3C Orion Sustained Readiness Program (SRP) and Anti-Surface Warfare Improvement Program (AIP)
Description: The P-3C Orion provides effective undersea warfare, anti-surface warfare, and Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) capabilities to naval and joint commanders. The current force of 12 active and eight reserve squadrons supports the theater and fleet commanders requirements for 40 P-3Cs continuously forward-deployed. Orions provide long-range, high-endurance support to aircraft carrier battle groups and amphibious ready groups.
The Navy's P-3 modernization plan is focusing on providing a more tailored force optimized for regional and littoral conflict. The key elements of the plan are mission system upgrades, sustaining inventory, and reducing multiple configurations. The specific programs include:
P-3C Update III — The conversion of remaining P-3C aircraft to the Update III digital system architecture will result in one common (active and reserve) configuration. Update III is the baseline configuration required to use advanced sensors and weapons. This program will enhance interoperability, replace obsolete components, and reduce support costs of maintaining varied avionics-configured airframes.
Anti-Surface Warfare Improvement Program — AIP will provide an enhanced sensor and weapon capability. The program includes the incorporation of the Stand-off Land-Attack and Maverick missiles, survivability enhancements, an advanced imaging radar, and electro-optic sensors. Other upgrades include improved C4I, and provisions for the near real-time connectivity of surveillance/reconnaissance data with battle group and national command decision-makers.
The Inventory Sustainment-Sustained Readiness Program — SRP is designed to address aircraft material condition and supportability issues. The SRP will extend the service life of the aircraft from 29.5 years to the fatigue life remaining (approximately 38 years). The existing P-3C Operational Requirement and aircraft specification remain valid. The SRP is not a Service Life Extension Program (SLEP).
Program Status: 25 Block Modification Upgrade kits converting P-3C Update II/II.5 configurations into Common Configuration aircraft were funded beginning in FY 1997 and ending in FY 2001. AIP was originally planned to modify 146 P-3C aircraft. Through early 1998, 42 aircraft modifications have been funded from FY 1994 to FY 2000. SRP is scheduled for 221 aircraft from FY 1997 to FY 2010, with 49 currently under contract.
Developer/Manufacturer: SRP: Raytheon Systems, Greenville, Texas. AIP: Lockheed Martin, Eagan, Minnesota and Greenville, South Carolina.
Description: The S-3B Viking provides multimission support to battle group and joint commanders in the anti-surface, anti-submarine, electronic surveillance, overland strike support, mine warfare, and aerial refueling roles. Ongoing service-life initiatives will allow the Viking to remain in service until FY 2015.
The current avionics upgrade program replaces obsolete high-maintenance safety of flight avionics systems. This effort includes the replacement of autopilot and flight control systems, electronic flight instruments, UHF/VHF/SATCOM communications equipment, Carrier Aircraft Inertial Navigation System, Stores Management System, and tactical display replacement. Additionally, the aircraft will have its obsolete Drum Memory System replaced by the AYK23 Central Computer, and will receive Global Positioning System (GPS) and USH42 Video Data Recorder System for fatigue-life monitoring.
Program Status: All avionics programs have been approved for Limited-Rate or Full-Rate Production. Installations for GPS and USH42 began in October 1997, with all systems installations scheduled to complete by FY 2005
Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin, Fort Worth, Texas.
SH-60R Multimission Helicopter Upgrade
Description: The conversion of all SH-60B and SH-60F helicopters to SH-60R or SH-60R(V) will provide a true multimission helicopter force. The SH-60R upgrade involves the remanufacture of existing Seahawk variants into an aircraft that will carry the Navy's tactical helicopter community through 2020. Along with a Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) for the airframe, the SH-60R will incorporate an advanced multimode, Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR), the Airborne Low Frequency (dipping) Sonar (ALFS), and an upgraded computer suite that will significantly improve the multimission ability of the SH-60 weapons system.
Program Status: Milestone II approval was granted in July 1993. An Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) contract was awarded in August 1993. Production is expected to begin in FY 1999.
Developer/Manufacturer: Prime contractor/avionics and system integration: Lockheed Martin Federal Systems Division, Oswego, New York. Airframe modifications: United Technologies Sikorsky Aircraft Division, Stratford, Connecticut.
Undergraduate Jet Pilot Training System
Description: The T-45TS provides Naval Aviation with a totally integrated jet pilot training system combining computer-based academics, simulators, T-45A Goshawk aircraft, and contractor-supplied maintenance and logistics support. The Goshawk replaces the T-2C and TA-4J trainer aircraft. The T-45TS represents the first time the Department of Defense has applied such a total concept to training military aviators.
Program Status: The T-45TS is fully operational at Naval Air Station (NAS), Kingsville, Texas. The T-45C (digital configuration) procurement is set at 15 aircraft per year with associated ground training systems and support. Eighty-two T-45A and two T-45Cs Goshawks have been accepted through the end of 1997. The T-45Cs will initially all be based at Naval Air Station Meridian, Mississippi. All
T-45As will be retrofitted to the digital configuration starting in FY 2001. NAS Meridian will begin to train student naval aviators in July 1998. The total buy through FY 2003 is 187 aircraft and 17 flight simulators; 15 aircraft have been requested in FY 1999.
Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, St. Louis, Missouri; and Rolls-Royce, Bristol,
V-22 Osprey Joint Advanced Vertical Aircraft
Description: The MV-22 Osprey is a tilt-rotor, Vertical/Short Take-Off or Landing (V/STOL) aircraft designed as the medium-lift replacement for the aging CH-46E and CH-53D helicopters. The MV-22 design incorporates advanced but mature technologies in composite materials, survivability, airfoil design, fly-by-wire controls, digital avionics, and manufacturing. The MV-22 is capable of carrying 24 combat-equipped Marines or a 10,000-pound external load, and has a strategic self-deployment capability of 2,100 nautical miles with a single aerial refueling. The MV-22's 38-foot rotor system and engine/transmission nacelle mounted on each wingtip allow it to operate as a helicopter for take-off and landing. Once airborne, the nacelles rotate forward 90 degrees, converting the MV-22 into a high-speed, high-altitude, fuel-efficient turboprop aircraft. The MV-22 represents a revolutionary change in aircraft capability to meet expeditionary mobility needs for the 21st century.
Program Status: The program is currently in the Engineering and Manufacturing and Development (EMD) phase. Four EMD aircraft have been built to support continued Developmental Tests and Operational Assessments. Testing accomplishments include successful completion of OT-IIC, and preparation were underway in early 1998 for OT-IID, the final operational assessment prior to OPEVAL, now scheduled for fall 1999. The first five fleet aircraft are being built as part of the first (of four) Low Rate Initial Production runs. Total planned procurement for the Marine Corps is 360 aircraft, 50 aircraft for U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM, U.S. Air Force procurement), and 48 aircraft for the Navy. Initial Operational Capability (IOC) for the Marine Corps (MV-22) is FY 2001; IOC for the USSOCOM (CV-22) is FY 2005; IOC for the Navy (HV-22) has not been determined.
Developer/Manufacturer: Bell Helicopter Textron, Fort Worth, Texas; Boeing Defense and Space Group, Helicopter Division, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Allison Engine Company, Indianapolis, Indiana.
AGOR Oceanographic Research Ship
Description: Civilian-operated Auxiliary General Oceanographic Research Ships (AGORs) are designed specifically for oceanographic survey operations conducted by academic institutions. Thomas G. Thompson (AGOR-23) was delivered in mid-1991 and is being operated by the University of Washington under the University Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Providing oceanographic sampling and data collection, other AGORs are operated by universities, Woods Hole, and the Scripps Institute. The Navy shares the research data as its return on investment.
Program Status: Revelle (AGOR-24) was delivered in June 1996 and is operated by the Scripps Institute of Oceanography. Atlantis (AGOR-25) was delivered in March 1997 and is operated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. An additional AGOR, Ronald H. Brown, was delivered to the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in April 1997, and is operated by the University of Hawaii.
Developer/Manufacturer: Halter Marine, Inc., Moss Point, Mississippi.
AOE-6 Supply Class Fast Combat Support Ship
Description: These are large, multi-product fleet replenishment ships, which significantly enhance the operational flexibility of the Navy's
aircraft carrier battle groups (CVBGs) and amphibious ready groups (ARGs). The AOE-6-class ships deliver on-station munitions, bulk
petroleum, lubricants, and dry and frozen provisions to forward-deployed CVBGs and ARGs in hostile environments. This new class is currently scheduled to transfer to the Military Sealift Command (MSC), and ongoing studies are addressing a broad spectrum of forward-deployed logistics concepts to support innovative operational concepts, including the Integrated Battle Group and the Marine Corps' Operational Maneuver from the Sea concepts.
Program Status: Three of four ships have been delivered. The fourth ship, Bridge (AOE-10), has been launched and is scheduled for delivery in FY 1998. T-AOE conversion for MSC service is scheduled to start in FY 1999 and will be complete by FY 2004.
Developer/Manufacturer: National Steel and Shipbuilding Company (NASSCO), San Diego, California.
Cargo Offload and Discharge System
Description: The Cargo Offload and Discharge System (COLDS) includes the Cargo Offload and Transfer System (COTS) for dry cargo and the Offshore Petroleum Discharge System (OPDS) for liquid cargo. COLDS supports Logistics-Over-The-Shore (LOTS) operations — loading and unloading of Marine Corps Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF) and Assault Follow-On Echelon (AFOE) ships without benefit of established port facilities. Routine replacement of these heavily used assets maintains LOTS readiness.
Program Status: Current research and development efforts to provide a Sea-State-Three operational LOTS capability include an Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) for lighterage, multiple projects for shipboard cranes, and various critical elements of the LOTS system of systems. The contract for next-generation sea-state-three lighterage will be awarded in FY 2000 following the ACTD. The completed 3,000-foot modular Elevated Causeway [ELCAS(M)] was delivered in early FY 1998.
Developer/Manufacturer: ELCAS(M): JERED Brown Brothers, Brunswick, Georgia. Non-powered causeways: Metal Trades, Charleston, South Carolina.
CVN-68 Nimitz Class
Nuclear-Powered Aircraft Carrier
Description: Nimitz-class nuclear-powered aircraft carriers are replacing the Navy's aging conventionally powered (oil-fired) carriers on a one-for-one basis, preserving and recapitalizing aircraft carrier battle group (CVBG) force levels to meet forward-presence, crisis-response, and warfighting requirements. The mission of the CVN-68-class aircraft carriers is to support and operate aircraft that engage in attack, surveillance, and electronic warfare against targets at sea, in the air, or ashore in support of Marines or joint forces. America's 12 carriers are forward-deployed worldwide in support of U.S. strategy and commitments and are increasingly important as the Navy adjusts its emphasis toward littoral regions and land-based forces are brought home to the United States.
Program Status: Seven Nimitz-class carriers have been delivered; Harry S. Truman (CVN-75) and Ronald Reagan (CVN-76) are currently under construction; CVN-75 is scheduled to deliver in FY 1998, and CVN-76, in FY 2002. The President's FY 1998-2002 Future Years Defense Plan (FYDP) includes funding for CVN-77, a modified-repeat of the CVN-76, to replace the USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63) in 2008. CVN-77 will be a "transition ship" that incorporates new technologies and features in anticipation of moving to a new, next-generation carrier design (CVX). A multi-year research and development program is also underway for CVX, the first unit of which could be requested in FY 2006 for an FY 2013 delivery to replace the USS Enterprise (CVN-65) and sustain minimum essential carrier force levels.
Description: The Land-Attack Destroyer (DD-21) is the first surface combatant founded entirely upon post-Cold War thinking and strategic concepts. Accordingly, the DD-21 design concept will support joint-service requirements in littoral regions. Armed with an array of land-attack weapons, DD-21 will provide offensive, distributed, and precise firepower at long ranges in support of forces ashore. With its state-of-the-art information technologies, DD-21 will be able to operate seamlessly with other naval forces, as well as U.S. ground and land-based air forces. Its emphasis on "sensor-to-shooter" connectivity will provide a naval or Joint Task Force commander with the mission flexibility to counter any maritime threat and to destroy a variety of land targets. Moreover, DD-21 will use advanced "stealth" features to make these warships less detectable to potential adversaries and more survivable to enemy attack.
The innovative DD-21 acquisition strategy calls for industry to determine their own designs to meet challenging operational requirements and aggressive affordability goals. Since the Navy is specifying capabilities rather than specific systems, the exact configuration for DD-21 has yet to be determined. However, DD-21's combat capability will include a mix of sensors and weapons appropriate for a 21st-century multimission surface warship. DD-21 will push the envelope in improved joint connectivity, advanced computing systems, reduced signatures (radar cross section, infrared, acoustic, and magnetic), and reduced manning. DD-21 represents a measured revolution in surface combatant design and acquisition.
Program Status: While ultimately responsible for acquiring a "family" of next-generation surface combatants, 21st Century Surface Combatant (SC-21) program office will initially focus on designing a new multimission destroyer (DD-21). The DD-21 program entered Program Definition and Risk Reduction (Phase I) in December 1997. On 12 January 1998, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology signed an Acquisition Decision Memorandum (ADM) SC-21 program. The ADM signing signifies the formal establishment of this new warship program and marks the beginning of a new era in surface combatant design and naval warfare capability. Beginning in 2004, the Navy plans to acquire approximately 32 DD-21s — at a rate of three ships per year — to replace the Spruance (DD-963)-class destroyers (31 ships commissioned from 1975 to 1983) and Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG-7)-class frigates (51 ships commissioned from 1977 to 1989).
Developer/Manufacturer: To be determined.
DDG-51 Arleigh Burke Class Aegis Guided Missile Destroyer
Description: The state-of-the-art DDG-51 guided missile destroyers have
combat systems centered around the Aegis Weapon System and the SPY-1D multi-function, phased-array radar. The Arleigh Burke's combat system includes the Mk 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS), an advanced anti-submarine warfare system, advanced anti-air warfare missiles, and Tomahawk cruise missiles in a potent, multimission (ASW, AAW, ASUW, and Strike) platform. These ships will also provide future land-attack capability, as well as area-wide defense against ballistic and overland cruise missiles. Incorporating all-steel construction and gas-turbine propulsion, Arleigh Burke-class destroyers provide multimission offensive and defensive capabilities, and can operate independently or as part of carrier battle groups, surface action groups, amphibious ready groups, and underway replenishment groups. The Flight IIA variant incorporates facilities to support two embarked helicopters, significantly enhancing the ship's sea-control capabilities.
Program Status: 22 Arleigh Burke-class destroyers have been delivered through FY 1997 and 11 others are at various stages of construction, with additional ships programmed for future years. The first Flight IIA destroyer, Oscar Austin (DDG-79), is scheduled to be launched in FY 1998. The class will total 57 ships. A multi-year procurement of 12 ships in FY 1998 through 2001 has been approved by Congress, which will save $1.4 billion compared to a conventional acquisition strategy. Four DDGs were approved in FY 1998, and the Navy has requested three in FY 1999. The SPY-1D(V), an upgrade to the SPY-1 family of radars, successfully underwent the first phase of testing in 1996. This improved radar will keep these ships ahead of the emerging low-observable anti-ship cruise missile threat.
Developer/Manufacturer: Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine; Ingalls Shipbuilding, Pascagoula, Mississippi; and Lockheed Martin, Moorestown, New Jersey.
LCAC Landing Craft, Air Cushion
Description: This high-speed, fully amphibious landing craft is capable of carrying a 60-ton payload (75 tons in overload) at speeds in excess of 40 knots and a nominal range of 200 nautical miles. Its ability to ride on a cushion of air allows it to operate directly from the well decks of amphibious assault ships and landing platform dock ships. Carrying equipment, troops, and supplies, the LCAC launches from the ship's well deck, transits at high speed over the waves, through the surf zone, and across the beach to a suitable offload site ashore where it quickly offloads and then returns for reload and follow-on sorties. LCACs provide amphibious task force commanders flexibility in selecting landing sites as compared with conventional landing craft, which can only approach 17% of the world's potential beaches. The LCAC now permits access to more than 70% of the world's beaches, delivering its cargo directly onto dry land. It is a multimission craft that can conduct a variety of tasks, including assault lane breaching, Shallow-Water Mine Countermeasures (SWMCM), Noncombatant Evacuation Operations (NEO), Medical Evacuation (MedEvac), and Logistics-Over-The-Shore (LOTS) support.
Program Status: Initial Operational Capability (IOC) was in 1986. Contracts for 91 LCACs were approved through FY 1997 and 90 have been delivered to the Fleet. Delivery of the 91st LCAC is scheduled for FY 1999. A Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) began in 1998 and will extend the LCAC's operational life out to 30 years.
Developer/Manufacturer: Textron Marine and Land Systems, New Orleans, Louisiana.
LHD-1 Wasp Class Amphibious Assault Ship
Description: The Wasp (LHD-1) class is a multipurpose amphibious assault ship whose primary mission is to embark, deploy, and land elements of a Marine landing force in an assault by a combination of helicopters, landing craft, or amphibious vehicles. The LHD class has a secondary mission of sea control. Amphibious forces, a vital component of a balanced naval expeditionary capability, provide for rapid power projection ashore by air and surface means, capabilities that are significantly enhanced by the LHD. The Wasp class increases total lift capacity by providing both a flight deck for helicopters and Vertical/Short Take-Off or Landing (V/STOL) aircraft, such as the AV-8B Harrier and the V-22 Osprey, and a well deck for both air-cushioned and conventional landing craft.
Program Status: Five ships have been delivered to the Fleet, and two additional ships are scheduled to be delivered in FYs 1998 and 2001, respectively.
Description: The Department of Defense Mobility Requirements Study (MRS) of 23 January 1992 defined the requirements for the LMSR program, which were revalidated in the MRS Bottom-Up Review of 28 March 1995. Nineteen LMSR Sealift Ships are being acquired: five through conversions of container ships to RO/ROs and 14 through new construction. LMSRs will provide the Army with eight ships for afloat prepositioning of a heavy brigade's equipment and combat support, and 11 ships for a heavy division's surge equipment from the United States. Each RO/RO ship will carry about 300,000 square feet of equipment and vehicles at a sustained speed of 24 knots.
Program Status: The five conversions have been delivered. New-construction contracts have been awarded to two shipyards for one lead ship and options for five additional ships at each yard. Four options from each shipyard have been awarded. An additional contract was awarded to National Steel and Shipbuilding Company (NASSCO) for one ship and an option for one ship to Avondale Industries. The first new-construction ship will be delivered in FY 1998 and the last in FY 2001.
Developer/Manufacturer: Conversions: National Steel and Shipbuilding Company, San Diego, California (3); and Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company, Newport News, Virginia (2). New construction: Avondale Industries, New Orleans, Louisiana; and NASSCO, San Diego.
LPD-17 San Antonio Class
Amphibious Transport Dock Ship
Description: The LPD-17 is an amphibious transport dock ship optimized for operational flexibility and designed to meet Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) lift requirements. This outgrowth of the LX program, defined in the 1990 Navy Integrated Amphibious Operations and Marine Corps Air Support Requirements Study, will carry 720 troops and two LCACs, have a capacity of 25,000 square feet of vehicle stowage and 36,000 cubic feet of cargo, and be able to land four CH-46 helicopters, or accommodate a mix of AH-1/UH-1, CH-46, and H-53E helicopters and MV-22 tiltrotor aircraft. Amphibious lift assets are increasingly important as a result of the emphasis on regional
contingencies and the need for rapid deployment of naval expeditionary forces.
Program Status: Initial contract award to design and build the lead ship of the class was awarded to the Avondale Alliance in December 1996. A contract award protest was successfully resolved in April 1997. Initial delivery is expected in FY 2003.
Developer/Manufacturer: Avondale Alliance (Avondale Industries, New Orleans, Louisiana; Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine; Raytheon, San Diego, California; and Intergraph, Huntsville, Alabama).
LSD-49 Harpers Ferry Class Landing Ship Dock- Cargo Variant
Description: Harpers Ferry (LSD-49) is the first cargo variant of the Whidbey Island (LSD-41)-class landing ship docks. These ships will transport and launch loaded amphibious craft and vehicles with their crews and embarked personnel in amphibious assaults. They also are capable of landing helicopters and Osprey V-22 tilt-rotor aircraft to fly combat troops to the assault area and can render limited docking and repair services to small ships and craft.
Program Status: Four LSD-49 Cargo Variants have been delivered to the Fleet. The final ship of the class was delivered in February 1998.
Developer/Manufacturer: Avondale Industries, New Orleans, Louisiana.
MHC-51 Osprey Class
Coastal Mine Hunter
Description: The Osprey (MHC-51)-class coastal mine hunters are an important element of the U.S. Navy's program to revitalize the nation's mine countermeasures (MCM) force. The modular Osprey design is based on the glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) hull design of the Italian Lerici-class MCM ships. The Osprey class incorporates mine-hunting and neutralization equipment — including the advanced SQQ-32 mine-hunting sonar and SLQ-48 Mine Neutralization System (MNS) — and embarked Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) divers. The Navy is modifying the ships to increase their endurance to 15 days. These ships complement the Navy's 14 Avenger (MCM-1) multimission MCM ships, all of which are in service. (See the Mine Warfare section for a discussion of the Navy's MCM and mine programs.)
Program Status: Ten of the 12 ships have been commissioned through 1997.
Developer/Manufacturer: Intermarine USA, Savannah, Georgia; and Avondale Industries, New Orleans, Louisiana.
Mk V Special Operations Craft
Description: The Mk V is a high-performance combatant craft capable of being transported overland and on board U.S. Air Force C-5 Galaxy aircraft using its own transporter system. This Special Operations Craft (SOC) can conduct medium-range insertion and extraction of Special Operations Forces (SOF) and provide an organic ability to support limited coastal patrol and interdiction taskings. The Mk V SOC is 82 feet long, has a top speed in excess of 45 knots and a cruising range greater than 500 nautical miles. Armament consists of multiple crew-served small-caliber weapons with 360-degree coverage — Mk 19 40mm grenade launchers, 12.7mm heavy machine guns or M60 7.62mm medium machine guns — and hand-held Stinger surface-to-air-missiles (SAMs). Future weapon upgrades could include twin 12.7mm machine guns, a 25mm chain gun, or 7.62mm minigun. The craft has a crew of five and is capable of carrying a Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) platoon (16 personnel) with Combat Rubber Raiding Craft (CRRC). The need for this type of combatant craft was validated during Operations Desert Shield/Storm in the Persian Gulf and is further justified by potential maritime SOF employments in all unified areas of responsibility. Ten of the Mk V craft will be assigned to Special Boat Squadron One, Coronado, California, and ten to Special Boat Squadron Two, Little Creek, Virginia. They will be operated in detachments comprising two Mk Vs and support equipment.
Program Status: The Mk V SOCs are being acquired under a streamlined acquisition program managed by the U.S. Special Operations Command. Two craft were delivered in August 1995, and FY 1996 was the first year of full-rate production. Twenty craft will be delivered by FY 1999.
Description: The PC-1 is a small combatant intended for coastal patrol and Special Operations, and replaced the Navy's PB Mk III craft. The design is 170.5 feet in length, 25 feet in beam, and 8.5 feet in draft, with a full-load displacement greater than 350 tons. The propulsion plant comprises four 3,350-bhp diesel engines driving four shafts, making a top speed in excess of 35 knots. Range is greater than 2,000 nautical miles at 12 knots. Manning is four officers and 24 enlisted, not including embarked Special Operations Forces (SOF) in dedicated berthing spaces. The PC-1 is armed with hand-held Stinger surface-to-air missiles, two 25mm M242 Bushmaster cannons and several mounts for 50-cal. machine guns, 7.62mm M60 machine guns, and 40mm Mk 19 (single) grenade launchers. The need for this type of combatant craft was revalidated during Operations Desert Shield/Storm in the Persian Gulf and is further justified by potential maritime SOF employments in all unified ares of responsibility. ##PCs are unique in that each is a commissioned ship, but operational leadership and resource sponsorship are provided by the Commander, Naval Special Warfare Command, the naval component of the U.S. Special Operations Command. PCs conduct and support special operations missions, including special reconnaissance (coastal patrol), direct action (interdiction), and foreign internal defense usually in support of a theater commander's peacetime engagement strategy. Other missions PCs support include maritime delivery/recovery of SOF, maritime intercept operations, and deception (usually in support of amphibious operations).
Program Status: The first unit, Cyclone (PC-1), was funded in FY 1990 and entered service in August 1993. Originally, the Navy planned to procure a total of 16 PC-1s, but by the time the lead unit was ordered, the program had been reduced to 13 craft. A 14th ship is under construction, with delivery scheduled for FY 2000.
Description: T-AGOS ocean surveillance ships are small, civilian-manned auxiliary ships that play a prominent role in augmenting the Navy's overall anti-submarine warfare (ASW) capability. There are three classes of this ship: the single-hull Stalwart (T-AGOS-1)-class and two twin-hull classes, the Victorious (T-AGOS-19), known as SWATH-P, and Impeccable (T-AGOS-23), the SWATH-A. These last two classes are Small Waterplane Area Twin-Hull (SWATH) designs that allow the ships to operate in relatively high seas. T-AGOS ships provide a platform for the Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System (AN/UQQ-2 SURTASS). The T-AGOS is the Navy's only long-range, mobile, surface ASW platform capable of detecting submarine targets. Although these ships are part of the Military Sealift Command's Naval Fleet Auxiliary Force (NFAF), they come under the operational control of fleet commanders.
Program Status: Three T-AGOS ships are in the Fleet as SURTASS platforms as of early 1998. These three ships are augmented by one additional leased commercial vessel, Cory Chouest, which is equipped with SURTASS as well as a prototype SURTASS Low Frequency Active (LFA) system under development for the SWATH-A class. Eleven T-AGOS monohull ships have transferred to other federal agencies; and four others are in lay-up with the inactive fleet. Four small (3,500-ton) SWATH-P ships are in service. One large (5,500-ton) Impeccable-class SWATH-A ship, designed as a platform for SURTASS Low Frequency Active (LFA), is under contract.
Developer/Manufacturer: Halter Marine, Moss Point, Mississippi.
T-AGS-60 Oceanographic Ship
Description: T-AGS-60-class oceanographic ships provide multipurpose oceanographic survey and data collection capabilities in littoral, coastal, and deep-ocean areas including physical, chemical, and biological environmental investigations; marine geology and geophysics; and bathymetric, gravimetric, and magnometric surveying. Typical missions of T-AGS-60 ships include: oceanographic sampling and multi-layer data collection, and the launch, recovery, and tow of scientific packages, using both tethered and autonomous remotely operated vehicles.
Program Status: These ships are replacements for technically obsolete or single-purpose ships. A total of six ships are planned; one was launched in FY 1994, a second in FY 1995, a third in FY 1996, and a fourth is under construction. Out-year option buys will be bid as a new contract.
Developer/Manufacturer: Halter Marine, Inc., Moss Point, Mississippi.
ASDS Advanced Swimmer Delivery System
Description: This dry mini-submarine will be 65 feet long, have a two-man crew, and carry a Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) squad or other services' Special Operations Forces (SOF). The ASDS will conduct long-range clandestine insertions and extractions in support of special operations missions and will be launched either from a host submarine, much like the Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle (DSRV), or from the well decks of amphibious ships. This system eliminates the extended exposure to cold water inherent with in-service wet submersible Swimmer Delivery Vehicles (SDVs) and will result in reduced physical and mental fatigue of SOF team members.
Program Status: The U.S. Special Operations Command has funded procurement of all planned ASDSs. The first will complete integration in late FY 1999 and will be homeported in SEAL Delivery Team One (SDVT ONE) in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. ASDSs are scheduled to be homeported in Hawaii and in Little Creek, Virginia (SDVT TWO). Modifications to in-service submarines that will host the ASDSs are underway.
Description: The New Attack Submarine (NSSN) will provide advanced acoustic technology and sustain minimum essential attack submarine force levels as the Los Angeles (SSN-688)-class attack submarines leave the Fleet. The NSSN will perform traditional open-ocean anti-submarine and anti-surface missions, yet will be specifically enhanced for multimission littoral and regional operations. NSSN will also be fully configured to conduct offensive and defensive mining operations, mine reconnaissance, Special Forces insertion/extraction, battle group support, intelligence-collection and surveillance missions, sea-control operations, and land-attack. Further, the NSSN will be specifically configured to adapt easily to special missions and emerging future requirements.
The NSSN program is the first major program to implement fully acquisition reform initiatives. The baseline tenets of NSSN affordability are Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD), modular construction, parts reduction, and aggressive insertion of advanced Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) technologies. The IPPD concept teams the Navy, shipbuilders, designers, and major and sub-tier vendors to assure the most efficient and effective design early in the design process. Modular construction allows construction, assembly, and testing of systems prior to installation in the ship's hull, thereby reducing costs, minimizing rework, and simplifying system integration.
Program Status: Milestone II initiation of Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) and Low-Rate Initial Production (LRIP) was reached in June 1995. Advance procurement for the lead ship was funded in FY 1996. Lead ship construction begins in FY 1998. The first four ships will be built under an innovative teaming arrangement between General Dynamics Electric Boat Corporation (EB) and Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS). Under the teaming arrangement, construction of the first four ships will be shared by ship section. NNS will build the bow, stern, sail, and selected forward sections for each submarine. EB will build the hull sections, the engine room modules, and the command-and-control system operating spaces. EB will assemble and deliver the first and third ships; NNS the second and fourth. The 1998 National Defense Authorization and Appropriations Acts approved funding for lead ship construction and advance procurement for follow-on ships, and provided the necessary legislative changes to the FY 1996 and FY 1997 Authorization Acts to permit NSSN construction teaming for the first four NSSNs.
Developer/Manufacturer: General Dynamics Electric Boat Corporation, Groton, Connecticut; and Newport News Shipbuilding, Newport News, Virginia.
SSBN-726 Ohio Class Nuclear-Powered Ballistic Missile Submarine
Description: The Ohio-class Trident submarine is the Navy's contribution — and the most survivable and enduring leg of the strategic Triad — to the nation's strategic deterrent posture. The fleet ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) thus is one of the Navy's highest policy, program, and operational priorities. The first eight Ohio-class ships are configured to carry 24 Trident I/C4 submarine launched ballistic missiles. The ninth ship, the USS Tennessee (SSBN-734), and all later ships are armed with the Trident II/D5 missile system. Each Trident missile is capable of carrying 12 Multiple Independently Targeted Reentry Vehicles (MIRVs), although in operation these missiles have been limited to eight MIRV warheads.
Program Status: All 18 of the planned Ohio-class submarines have been commissioned. The final ship of the class, the USS Louisiana
(SSBN-743), joined the Fleet in FY 1997. Beginning in FY 2000, four of the first eight ships will be converted to carry the Trident II/D5 missile. Various proposals are under consideration regarding modifications to the remaining four early Ohios that may not receive D5 back-fit, including conversion to an SSGN enhanced land-attack/strike and Special Forces platform.
Developer/Manufacturer: General Dynamics Electric Boat Corporation, Groton, Connecticut.
SSN-21 Seawolf Class Nuclear-Powered Attack Submarine
Description: The Seawolf (SSN-21)-class attack submarines provide robust open-ocean sea control capabilities against current and future submarine threats, as well as significant multimission littoral warfare capabilities. The emphasis in the Seawolf class is on high submerged speeds and deep operating depth, with significantly improved machinery quieting, combat systems, sensor systems, and payload capacity, compared to the Improved Los Angeles (SSN-688I) attack submarines (SSN-751 and later units). Initial trials of the SSN-21 have confirmed the ships' superior capabilities in all critical warfighting areas.
Program Status: The USS Seawolf (SSN-21) was commissioned in
July 1997. Connecticut (SSN-22) and the third submarine, Jimmy Carter (SSN-23), are under construction and are scheduled for delivery in 1998 and 2001, respectively.
Developer/Manufacturer: General Dynamics Electric Boat Corporation, Groton, Connecticut.