7. Months before Pearl Harbor, Roosevelt and Churchill were already working together to foil the Nazis. Though Roosevelt refused to commit to joining the war, he and Churchill drafted the Atlantic Charter
, an agreement between the two world powers about how the world would look after the war was won.
8. The U.S. still helped Britain by giving its future ally 50 destroyers under Roosevelt's Lend Lease program
in March 1941. The act authorized the president to transfer arms or any other defense materials for which Congress appropriated money to "the government of any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States."
9. On Sept. 14, 1944, Roosevelt and Churchill initialed a document called the Hyde Park Aide Memoire
that outlined the collaboration between the U.S. and Great Britain in the development of an atomic bomb, later known as the Manhattan Project. The document stated this project would be kept secret, especially from the Russians, and it included the possibility of using the bomb against the Japanese, which Roosevelt's successor, President Harry Truman, ultimately decided to do to in August 1945. The war ended less than a month later.
10. Roosevelt had died in office the previous April, so he missed the jubilant celebrations that followed. Churchill himself wrote, "It is cruel that he will not see the Victory which he did so much to achieve." In his eulogy to the president, the British prime minister also said, "in Franklin D. Roosevelt, there died the greatest American friend we have ever known."
11. Churchill coined the phrase "special relationship," in reference to the Anglo-American alliance. "I come to the crux of what I have traveled here to say," he said in what has become known as his Iron Curtain Speech, delivered at Westminster College, Fulton, Missouri, in March 1946. "Neither the sure prevention of war, nor the continuous rise of world organization will be gained without what I have called the fraternal association of the English-speaking peoples. This means a special relationship between the British Commonwealth and Empire and the United States."
12. In 1963, President John F. Kennedy deemed Churchill, who would die two years later, an honorary citizen of the United States. "In enjoining me to perform this happy duty, the Congress gives Sir Winston Churchill a distinction shared only with the Marquis de Lafayette," Kennedy said in a speech. "The grandeur of Sir Winston's life is its own testimony. No statement by Congress or president can add luster to the name of a man whose deeds and words will forever embody the deepest courage, the deepest wisdom and the deepest hope of our century."
13. On Nov. 19, 1995, during a visit to the United Kingdom, President Bill Clinton announced to Parliament that a new U.S. Navy ship would be named after Churchill. The ship would be the first destroyer and only the fourth United States Navy warship ever to be named after a British citizen. In fact, USS Winston Churchill
was the first ship to be named after any non-American citizen since 1975.
14. USS Winston Churchill
's coat of arms celebrates the relationship between ship and statesman. The cross of St. George and the fleur-de-lis are from Churchill's augmentation of his ancestor's coat of arms. The red cross on the white field is a reference to the flag of St. George. The gold lion over the field of red is a nod to the heritage of Great Britain. The lion shows strength, courage and determination. The nebuly represents the sky and clouds, which recall how Britain endured German airpower in the Battle of Britain. Finally, Churchill's reputation as an inspiring war leader, talented statesman, orator and author is referred to by a stylized book, according to the ship's website.