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Chapter 3: Requirements into Capabilities

Platforms Aircraft | Submarines | Surface Ships, Craft & Logistic Systems

Aircraft

AH-1Z Super Cobra
and UH-1Y Huey Upgrade


Description: The AH-1 Super Cobra is a two-seat, twin-engine attack helicopter capable of land-or sea-based operations. It provides rotary-wing close air support (CAS), anti-armor/anti-helicopter, transport, helicopter escort, armed and visual reconnaissance, control of supporting arms, and shipboard and austere base operations, during day/night and adverse weather conditions. The UH-1 Huey is a twin-engine combat utility helicopter capable of land- or sea-based operations. It provides airborne command and control, combat assault support, control of supporting arms, medical evacuation, special operations support, search and rescue augmentation, visual reconnaissance, and shipboard and austere base operations, during day/night and adverse weather conditions.

The H-1 upgrade program involves conversion of both the AH-1W and UH-1N from a two-bladed rotor system to a four-bladed system, and redesignation to AH-1Z and UH-1Y, respectively (formerly referred to as "4BW" and "4BN," respectively). The upgrade program is designed to resolve existing safety issues in both aircraft, zero airframe time, reduce life-cycle costs, significantly enhance combat capability, and achieve 85 percent commonality between aircraft. Major modifications include a new rotor system with semi-automatic blade fold, new composite main and four-bladed tail rotor, upgraded drive system and landing gear, and pylon structural modifications. These aircraft will have increased maneuverability, speed and range, and payload capability. Additionally, both aircraft will incorporate a newly designed, fully integrated, common cockpit that will reduce operator workload and improve situational awareness.

Program Status: The Preliminary Design Review was approved in June 1997, and the Critical Design Review was completed in September 1998. LRIP will begin in the second quarter FY 2002, and Milestone III is slated for the second quarter FY 2004. Five EMD aircraft will be produced, four of which will eventually become Fleet assets and one aircraft (without an integrated avionics suite) will be used for Live-Fire Test and Evaluation. The program objective calls for a total of 280 airframes to be converted; 180 AH-1Ws to AH-1Zs and 100 UH-1Ns to UH-1Ys. Due to a limited procurement rate that must be balanced against other competing requirements within existing resources, the program buy has been revised to complete in FY 2011.

Developer/Manufacturer: Bell Helicopter Textron, Fort Worth, Texas.

AV-8B Harrier II+
Tactical Aircraft Remanufacture

pilot in cockpit

Description: The AV-8B Harrier is a single-seat, light attack aircraft that provides offensive air support to the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF). By virtue of its Vertical/Short Take-Off and Landing (V/STOL) capability, the AV-8B can operate from a variety of amphibious ships, rapidly constructed expeditionary airfields, forward sites (e.g., roads), and damaged conventional airfields. This makes the aircraft particularly well suited for providing dedicated close air support.

Three variants of the aircraft are in service: the Day Attack, Night Attack, and Radar/Night Attack Harrier. The Night Attack Harrier improved upon the original AV-8B design through incorporation of a Navigation, Forward-Looking InfraRed (NAVFLIR) sensor, a moving map, night vision goggle compatibility, and a higher performance engine. The current Radar/Night Attack Harrier, or Harrier II+, has all the improvements of the Night Attack aircraft plus the AN/APG-65 multi-mode radar. The fusion of night and radar capabilities allows the Harrier to be responsive to the MAGTF's needs for expeditionary, night and adverse weather offensive air support.

The ongoing "remanufacture" program, in which 72 Day Attack aircraft from the existing inventory are being rebuilt to the Radar/ Night Attack standard, extends the service life of these Harrier aircraft into the next century, and greatly improves their warfighting capabilities. Existing Harriers are also being upgraded through the use of COTS technology. The Open Systems-Common Architecture program will replace the existing Harrier mission computer with a COTS system that is affordable and easily upgraded and maintained.

Program Status: The AV-8B is scheduled to remain in service until a replacement aircraft is fully fielded in 2022. Twenty-four new Marine Corps Harrier II+ aircraft have been delivered. To remain responsive to fleet needs, older Day Attack AV-8Bs are being remanufactured to the Radar/Night Attack Harrier II+ standard. Plans call for 72 Harriers to undergo remanufacture through FY 2001, with the remaining 10 funded in the FY 2001 budget. This plan includes reusing major assemblies and components of the Day Attack aircraft in combination with refurbished AN/APG-65 radars from the F/A-18 Radar Upgrade program (RUG, see separate program summary), along with a new production structure and a more powerful engine. In addition, the Marine Corps is considering remanufacture of an additional 16 aircraft to be completed by 2003.

Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, St. Louis, Missouri.

C-40A
Navy-Unique Fleet Essential Airlift Replacement Aircraft

workers assembling aircraft

Description: The Naval Reserve Force represents 100 percent of the Navy's organic intra-theater logistics airlift capability. Twenty-seven aging C-9B aircraft have performed the majority of these services. Congress, through National Guard and Reserve Equipment Appropriations, funded the first four C-9 Replacement Aircraft. Navy aircraft procurement appropriations (APN) are funding the fifth and subsequent aircraft. The C-40A, a modified Boeing 737-700 series aircraft, won the competition of COTS aircraft systems. This state-of-the-art aircraft will transport 121 passengers, 40,000 pounds of cargo, or a combination of the two, at ranges greater than 3,000 miles and at 0.8 Mach cruise speed. The ability to carry safely cargo pallets and passengers simultaneously maximizes operational capability and capacity. Features include a new wing with an advanced-technology airfoil; an electronic flight deck fully compliant with future communication, navigation, and air traffic control architectures; advanced technology, Stage III noise-compliant, fuel-efficient engines; and an integral cargo door/cargo handling system. Maximum gross take-off weight is 171,000 pounds.

Program Status: The first aircraft delivery is scheduled for March 2001. Four C-40As are on contract (National Guard/Reserve Equipment funding), with a fifth aircraft appropriated in FY 2000 (APN funding). The first aircraft's wing and fuselage mating and aircraft rollout is scheduled for the second quarter of FY 2000. Following FAA flight certification testing, to begin in April 2000, the aircraft will be delivered to Boeing's Wichita facility for interior cargo system modifications.

Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, Seattle, Washington.

CH-60
Fleet Combat Support Helicopter

helicopter during unerway replenishment

Description: The CH-60 Fleet Combat Support Helicopter is the future aircraft for organic mine countermeasures, combat search and rescue, special operations, and logistics support. The CH-60 will complement and eventually replace the Navy's aging fleet of H-46 helicopters, which is experiencing a near-term inventory shortfall due to the advanced airframe life throughout the H-46 fleet. The CH-60 meets or exceeds all the requirements of the current aircraft, is compatible with all current and future Combat Logistics Force ships, and is an NDI platform program that will provide commonality with existing integrated logistics systems and fleet trainers. Combining the tested and battle-proven U.S. Army UH-60 Blackhawk fuselage and Navy SH-60 Seahawk dynamic components, the CH-60 will be a superb aircraft. The commonality bred into the helicopter not only contributes to mission effectiveness, but will provide logistics and acquisition efficiencies. The CH-60 is the linchpin of the Navy Helicopter Master Plan, replacing H-46s as they retire and increasing standardization for training, maintenance, and operations as older SH-3s, UH-1Ns, and MH-53s are replaced in the out years.

Program Status: The first demonstration aircraft was built in FY 1997 and first flew in October 1997. Preliminary testing has completed, and the demonstration aircraft met all expectations. The Navy has since joined in a multi-service, multi-year procurement with the Army. Production development began in FY 1998, and the Navy took delivery of its first CH-60 in FY 1999. The Navy plans to buy as many as 237 of these aircraft; 15 are funded in FY 2001.

Developer/Manufacturer: Sikorsky, Stratford, Connecticut; General Electric, Lynn, Massachusetts; and Lockheed Martin, Oswego, New York.

E-2C Hawkeye
Airborne Early Warning Group II Program


E-2C aircraft flying off carrier deck

Description: The E-2C Hawkeye is the Navy's and Marine Corps' airborne surveillance and command-and-control platform, providing battle management and support of decisive power projection at sea and ashore in a joint operational architecture. In addition to current capabilities, the E-2C has an extensive upgrade and development program to prepare it as a critical element in an overall joint theater missile defense program. The Hawkeye force is keeping pace with changing tactical environments via two major upgrades: the E-2C Group II upgrade, and the Radar Modernization Program (RMP). The most advanced Hawkeye variant currently in production, the E-2C Group II, features:

The next upgrade, the Hawkeye 2000, will install a Mission Computer Upgrade (MCU) and Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC), and an improved Electronic Support Measures (ESM) system enhancing the E-2's capabilities in the multiple threat environment anticipated in the 21st century. The MCU will improve target detection and tracking, and enable the incorporation of CEC. In turn, CEC-equipped Hawkeyes—the E-2C is the first aircraft in the U.S. aviation arsenal to incorporate this system—will significantly extend the engagement capability of surface forces. The CEC-equipped Hawkeye is the key to early cueing of the Aegis Weapon System, dramatically extending the lethal range of the Standard Missile (SM-2).

The Radar Modernization Program is developing an advanced demonstration radar for the Hawkeye that will bring over-the-horizon, overland detection, and tracking to the battle group. This, coupled with CEC, will fully integrate the Hawkeye into the Theater Ballistic Missile and Cruise Missile Defense (TBMD/CMD) role. This advanced tracking capability, in conjunction with the Aegis and upgraded Standard Missiles (SM-2 Block IVA and SM-3), will allow the battle group to deploy an organic, theater-wide cruise missile and theater ballistic missile defense umbrella for protection of high-priority defended areas and U.S. and coalition forces. Additionally, the E-2's systems are fully interoperable with the Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) and ground-based systems for a seamless transition to a full joint architecture.

The Navy is ensuring that the E-2C continues as the "eyes and ears" of the Fleet as it applies the aircraft's capabilities in the integrated joint, overland, theater-wide air, and missile defense environment. Many of the technological improvements being incorporated in the Hawkeye represent leading-edge improvements, not just in the Navy's theater air and missile defense posture, but in that of all U.S. forces.

Program Status: Milestone III for production restart and Milestone III/II for the MCU were approved in FY 1994. Procurement of 15 aircraft is planned from 2001 to 2003. Aircraft with MCU are undergoing testing at Naval Air Station, Patuxent River, Maryland. Technical and Operational Evaluations are scheduled to begin in 2000. IOC for the MCU is scheduled for 2000.

Developer/Manufacturer: Northrop Grumman, Bethpage, New York.

E-6A/B Mercury
Airborne Command Post/TACAMO Aircraft

TACAMO aircraft

Description: The E-6A/B platform, derived from the Boeing 707, provides National Command Authority and the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, with command, control, and communications (C3) capability through which execution and direction of strategic forces can be accomplished. Designed to support a robust and flexible nuclear deterrent posture into the 21st century, the E-6A is currently incorporating Airborne National Command Post (ABNCP) equipment from retired U.S. Air Force EC-135Cs. The new E-6B aircraft configuration provides greater endurance and lower operating costs than the EC-135. Additionally the E-6A/B retains the "Take Charge and Move Out" (TACAMO) mission providing multiple C3 links for Emergency Action Message (EAM) relay. The E-6A/B receives and transmits secure and non-secure voice and data message traffic on multiple frequency spectra. The aircraft's primary communications mission is accomplished at very low/low frequencies (VLF/LF) and also via ultra high frequency (UHF) line-of-sight and satellite communications systems. The E-6A/B can deploy a 28,000-foot trailing-wire antenna and a 5,000-foot short trailing-wire antenna for VLF communications. With in-flight refueling, the aircraft is capable of providing up to 72 airborne hours of decision-level conferencing, force management, situation monitoring, and communications support. The E-6B retains all E-6A capabilities and adds:

Program Status: E-6As became fully operational in 1992. The first modified aircraft was delivered to the fleet on 14 October 1997 and commenced ABNCP operations for U.S. Strategic Command in October 1998. Sixteen E-6Bs are scheduled for completion by 2003.

Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, Seattle, Washington; and Raytheon, Waco, Texas.

EA-6B Prowler
Electronic Warfare Aircraft

EA-6B aircraft in flight

Description: The EA-6B Prowler electronic warfare (EW) aircraft, which played a key role in suppressing enemy air defenses during Operation Desert Storm in 1991 and Operation Allied Force in Kosovo last year, enhances the strike capabilities not only of carrier air wings but of U.S. Air Force and allied forces, as well. The decision to retire the Air Force EF-111A Raven EW aircraft and to assign all Department of Defense radar jamming missions to the Prowler adds to the significance of the EA-6B in joint warfare. With its jamming and High-Speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) capability, the Prowler is a unique national asset that will be deployed from land bases and aircraft carriers. Its ability to monitor the electromagnetic spectrum and actively deny an adversary's use of radar and communications is unmatched by any airborne platform worldwide. These capabilities were amply demonstrated in the skies over Kosovo in 1999. Navy and Marine Corps Prowler squadrons operating from Aviano Air Base, Italy, and the USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) were an indispensable element of all coalition air operations.

Program Status: The Kosovo Supplemental and FY 2000 congressional additions resulted in procurement acceleration for several EA-6B enhancements, including Band 9/10 jamming pods, Universal Exciter Units, and Night Vision Devices. In recognition of the strain placed on the EA-6B fleet by simultaneous Kosovo and Iraqi No-Fly Zone enforcement operations, funding was authorized for conversion of several test and evaluation aircraft to full operational status, resulting in the creation of an additional Expeditionary Squadron in FY 2003. The Block 89A upgrade program (which is expected to reach IOC in FY 2000) will address structural and supportability problems associated with aging aircraft, and includes numerous avionics improvements for safety of flight and joint interoperability. Later improvements to the Prowler's AN/ALQ-99 tactical jamming system—including the Improved Capabilities (ICAP) III upgrade (which is entering development and is expected to reach IOC in early FY 2004), new high- and low-frequency transmitters, integrated Improved Data Modem (IDM), and continuing structural enhancements—will ensure that the EA-6B remains the world's premier tactical electronic warfare platform and a force multiplier for years to come. Finally, studies are underway to recommend a platform to begin replacing the EA-6B starting in FY 2010.

Developer/Manufacturer: Northrop Grumman, Bethpage, New York.

EP-3E Aries II
Signals Intelligence Aircraft

Description: Based on the Orion P-3 airframe, the EP-3E is the Navy's only land-based signals intelligence (SIGINT) reconnaissance aircraft. The 12 aircraft in the Navy's inventory provide fleet and theater commanders worldwide with near real-time tactical SIGINT. With sensitive receivers and high-gain dish antennas, the EP-3E exploits a wide range of electronic emissions from deep within hostile territory.

Program Status: The Aries II is currently undergoing a Sensor System Improvement Program (SSIP) that will significantly enhance its connectivity over a range of command-and-control, communications, and intelligence (C3I) links. In addition, mission software improvements will link off-board and on-board sensors, creating a fused tactical picture of the battlespace that can be used by the crew or sent in near real-time to other warfighters. One European Command EP-3E is also serving as the Department of Defense prototype for the high-band subsystem of the Joint SIGINT Avionics Family (JSAF). The JSAF program builds on SSIP connectivity to provide the EP-3E with an open-architecture, state-of-the-art collection and dissemination system capable of exploiting threat emissions beyond the year 2020. The SSIP will complete in FY 2001, and the JSAF Modernization (JMOD) program commences in FY 2001. JMOD is an evolutionary, block-mod program designed to rapidly refresh technology in the fleet through incremental upgrades completed during scheduled depot level maintenance. The JMOD program will bring the EP-3E fleet into compliance with the Joint Airborne SIGINT Architecture (JASA).

Developer/Manufacturer: SSIP: Raytheon, Waco, Texas.

F-14A/B/D Tomcat
Strike-Fighter Aircraft

F-14 aircraft breaking sound barrier

Description: The F-14 Tomcat continues to be a premier long-range strike-fighter as evidenced by its superb performance in Operation Allied Force and the strikes in Operation Southern Watch. While the Navy provided only eight percent of the total dedicated aircraft in Operation Allied Force, the Navy was credited with 30 percent of the validated kills against fielded forces in Kosovo as a result of the superb performance of the Tomcat in the Forward Air Controller (Airborne) (FAC(A)) role. Another revolutionary feature of the Tomcat is the recent Low-Altitude Navigation and Targeting InfraRed at Night (LANTIRN) system software update that enables the Tomcat to acquire mensurated target coordinates that are accurate enough for GPS weapons, which is unique to the Tomcat. The Tomcat's "Roadmap for the Future"—a plan to incorporate significant performance improvements during the next four years, including through-the-weather precision strike capability—makes it the platform of choice for all-weather, day or night, deep strike. The F-14 will enable the Navy to maintain the desired force structure of strike-fighter aircraft on each carrier deck until it is replaced by the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.

The Tomcat has been configured as a potent precision strike-fighter with the incorporation of the LANTIRN system. With LANTIRN, the Tomcat has an accurate, autonomous designation and targeting capability for the delivery of laser-guided bombs. This system is effective at high altitude, day or night, and also functions as an important reconnaissance tool for the battle group or task force commander. All deploying battle groups have LANTIRN-capable Tomcats.

In addition to its precision strike capability, the F-14 is being outfitted with enhanced defensive countermeasure systems (e.g., chaff and AN/ALR-67 Radar Warning Receiver), night vision capability, GPS and Fast Tactical Imagery (FTI). FTI provides day/night, stand-off imagery transmission and reception capability, which is essential for network-centric warfare. These systems significantly enhance the capability of the Tomcat in the strike-fighter role. The F-14 outfitted with the Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance Pod System (TARPS) will continue to provide a manned tactical reconnaissance capability. The F-14's "Roadmap" includes the incorporation of a digital imaging and data link capability in 24 TARPS pods to provide battle group, joint force, and allied commanders with near real-time imagery for the detection and identification of tactical targets, and immediate threat and bomb damage assessment. In early 2000, the first battle group is deployed with TARPS CD which is a more capable digital camera that provides high-resolution, digital, battlefield imagery transmitted real-time to the Battle Group Commander while flying over a target area.

The F-14's critical role in maintaining air superiority and its ability to launch precision-guided munitions has ensured that the aircraft will remain a vital player in the Navy's inventory until its retirement.

Program Status: Thirty aircraft will undergo depot modification in FY 2000 with an additional 27 aircraft scheduled for FY 2001-03. Seventy-five LANTIRN systems have been procured, and 51 have been delivered with final deliveries due in June 2001. Two TARPS pods have been modified to the TARPS CD configuration and a $25 million congressional add to the FY 2000 budget will provide four additional pods and receiving stations.

Developer/Manufacturer: Depot modifications: Northrop Grumman, St. Augustine, Florida and at NAS Jacksonville, Florida. LANTIRN: Lockheed Martin, Orlando, Florida; TARPS CD: Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.; FTI: Phototelesis, San Antonio, Texas.

F/A-18C/D Hornet
Strike-Fighter Aircraft


F/A-18 taking off

Description: The F/A-18 Hornet is Naval Aviation's principal strike-fighter. This state-of-the-art, multi-mission aircraft serves in the Navy and Marine Corps, as well as the armed forces of several allied and friendly countries. Its reliability, maintainability, safety record, high performance, and multiple weapons-delivery capability highlight the Hornet's success. Budgeted improvements to the original Hornet A/B/C/D variants provide significant warfighting enhancements in the near term. These improvements include the Global Positioning System, Link 16, AIM-9X Sidewinder/Helmet Mounted Cueing System, Combined Interrogator Transponder, Joint Direct Attack Munition/Joint Stand-Off Weapon (JDAM/JSOW) delivery capability, and a Digital Communication System for close air support. The aircraft's weapons, communications, navigation, and Defensive Electronic Countermeasures systems will also continue to be upgraded.

Program Status: Although the F/A-18C/D is out of production, existing aircraft are being upgraded to enhance their current weapons, communications, and reconnaissance systems capabilities to ensure their continued service into the 21st century.

Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, St. Louis, Missouri; and General Electric, Lynn, Massachusetts.

F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
Strike-Fighter Aircraft

super hornet on flight deck

Description: The introduction of the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet to the Fleet in 2000 will provide critical growth capacity, weapon bring-back improvements, survivability enhancements, and range/payload improvements, all of which are required to keep the strike-fighter force lethal and viable well into the 21st century. There will be extensive commonality with weapons systems, avionics, and software between F/A-18 variants, and the infrastructure needed to support the Super Hornet will build upon existing organizations. Ultimately, the F/A-18E will replace older F/A-18s while the two-seat F/A-18F will replace the F-14A/B/Ds. The lethality, flexibility, reliability, and survivability of the F/A-18E/F make it the right aircraft to fulfill the majority of missions associated with regional and littoral conflicts.

Program Status: The F/A-18 E/F program concluded its three-year EMD phase in May 1999 and completed OPEVAL in November 1999. Aircraft F/A-18E-1 completed its first flight on 29 November 1995. The Super Hornet successfully completed sea trials and its first carrier landing in January 1997. LRIP was approved in March 1997. The seven test aircraft on site at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland, have flown more than 5,000 flight test hours as of November 1999, and have been tested to Mach 1.75 and to altitudes in excess of 50,000 feet. VX-9 and VFA-122 aircrews have flown more than 1,400 operational test flight hours. The first LRIP aircraft have been delivered and production continues ahead of schedule. Congress has approved multi-year procurement of the F/A-18E/Fs beginning in FY 2000, contingent upon a successful OPEVAL. This will enable the acquisition of 222 aircraft at the cost of 200, saving the taxpayers more than $720 million, compared to a traditional acquisition strategy.

F/A-18E/F weapon system development continues in parallel with airframe operational testing. Advanced Targeting FLIR (ATFLIR) and Shared Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) programs are on pace to be delivered in time for the first Super Hornet deployment in FY 2003. Sub-contractor competition was completed in November 1999 for development and production of the Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar that is scheduled to IOC in FY 2006. A configuration control roadmap for AESA-related Advance Mission Computer and Higher Order Language is under development.

Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, St. Louis, Missouri.

JSF
Joint Strike Fighter

Joint Strike Fighter on flight deck

Description: The Joint Strike Fighter program will develop and field a tri-service family of next-generation strike aircraft with an emphasis on affordability. The "family of aircraft" concept allows a high level of commonality while meeting unique U.S. service and allied needs. The United Kingdom is a collaborative partner in the program; Denmark, Norway, The Netherlands, and Canada are associated partners. This coalition approach to the JSF's development is anticipated to produce significant savings when compared to the costs of separate programs. The government and industry team is converging on a design concept that, when coupled with other technology "building blocks," will result in continuing U.S. technological superiority at an affordable price.

The focus of the JSF effort is to reduce the costs of developing, producing, and owning these aircraft. The program is accomplishing this by facilitating the services' development of fully validated, affordable operational requirements, and by lowering technical risk by investing in and demonstrating key leveraging technologies and operational concepts prior to the start of EMD in FY 2001.

Program Status: In November 1996, the designs from Lockheed Martin and Boeing were selected to compete in the JSF Concept Demonstration Phase. This phase is ongoing and is designed to lead to an affordable and low-risk transition to the EMD phase in FY 2001. The first operational naval aircraft will be delivered in FY 2008, the Marine Corps STOVL variant.

Developer/Manufacturer: Weapon system concept definition and design: Boeing, Seattle, Washington; and Lockheed Martin, Fort Worth, Texas. Propulsion system: Pratt & Whitney, West Palm Beach, Florida; Allison Engine Company, Indianapolis, Indiana; and General Electric, Cincinnati, Ohio.

JPATS
Joint Primary Aircraft Training System

JPATS aircraft  in flight

Description: JPATS is a joint Navy-Air Force program to replace the existing Navy T-34C and the Air Force T-37 aircraft and simulators with a common primary undergraduate pilot training system. The Navy will use this new training system for service-unique intermediate undergraduate pilot training, as well as the primary and intermediate training of Naval Flight Officers (NFOs) and Air Force navigators. (In 1996 the Navy assumed full responsibility for training all Air Force tactical navigators.) The JPATS aircraft has been designated the T-6A Texan II, and is an improved version of the Pilatus PC-9. The T-6A will accommodate more than 90% of the eligible pilot population.

Program Status: The Air Force is the lead service for JPATS. The program passed Milestone II in August 1995 and is scheduled for Milestone III in April 2000. The first production T-6A was completed in 1998 and was delivered to the Air Force in November 1999. Air Force IOC is scheduled for FY 2001 and Navy IOC is planned for FY 2003. The Air Force and Navy are scheduled to procure 740 aircraft with the last aircraft being delivered to the Navy in 2017. The Ground Based Training System (GBTS), with its overarching Training Integrated Management System (TIMS), is scheduled to be operational for both services by 2001.

Developer/Manufacturer: T-6A Aircraft: Raytheon, Wichita, Kansas. GBTS: Flight Safety Service Corporation, Littleton, Colorado.

KC-130J Hercules
Tactical Tanker and Transport

KC-130 in flight

Description: The KC-130 is a multi-role, multi-mission tactical tanker and transport aircraft, well suited to the mission needs of the forward-deployed Marine Air-Ground Task Forc). The Hercules is the only long-range assault support capability organic to the Marine Corps. This aircraft provides both fixed-wing and rotary-wing tactical in-flight refueling; rapid ground refueling of aircraft or tactical vehicles; assault air transport of air-landed or air-delivered personnel, supplies, and equipment; command-and-control augmentation; pathfinder and battlefield illumination; tactical aeromedical evacuation; and search and rescue support. The new KC-130J, with its increase in speed and range, improved air-to-air refueling system, night systems, and survivability enhancements, will provide the MAGTF commander with a state-of-the-art, multi-mission, tactical aerial refueler/transport well into the 21st century.

Program Status: Initial delivery is planned for FY 2000. Six KC-130Js are being procured for the Marine Corps in FY 2001-03.

Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin, Marietta, Georgia.

P-3C Orion
Update III Block Modification Upgrade Program (BMUP), Anti-Surface Warfare Improvement Program (AIP), and Inventory Sustainment

P-3C Orion in flight

Description: The P-3C Orion provides effective undersea warfare, anti-surface warfare, and Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) capabilities to naval and joint commanders. The current force of 12 active and seven reserve squadrons provides 40 P-3Cs continuously forward-deployed in support of theater and fleet commanders. Orions provide long-range, high-endurance support to aircraft carrier battle groups and amphibious ready groups.

The Navy's P-3 modernization plan is focusing on providing a more tailored force optimized for regional and littoral crisis and conflict. The key elements of the plan are mission system upgrades, sustaining inventory, and reducing multiple configurations. The specific programs include:

Program Status: 23 Block Modification Upgrade III kits converting P-3C Update II/II.5 configurations into Common Configuration Aircraft were funded beginning in FY 1997 and ending in FY 2001. AIP was originally planned to modify 146 P-3C aircraft. However, due to affordability, through FY 1999 only 45 aircraft modifications are on contract and five are requested in the FY 2001 budget. SRP is in execution and planned to merge with the inventory sustainment effort beginning in FY 2002.

Developer/Manufacturer: Update III: Lockheed Martin, Manassas, Virginia. SRP: Raytheon Systems, Greenville, Texas. AIP: Lockheed Martin, Eagan, Minnesota and Greenville, South Carolina.

S-3B Viking
Service Life Extension/Upgrade Programs

S-3B Viking in flight

Description: The S-3B Viking provides multi-mission support to battle group and joint commanders in the anti-surface, electronic surveillance, overland strike support, and aerial refueling roles. Ongoing service-life initiatives will allow the Viking to remain in service until FY 2015. The current avionics upgrade program replaces obsolete, high-maintenance safety-of-flight avionics systems. This effort includes the replacement of autopilot and flight control systems, electronic flight instruments, UHF/VHF/SATCOM communications equipment, Carrier Aircraft Inertial Navigation System/GPS, Stores Management System, and tactical display replacement. Additionally, the aircraft will have its obsolete Drum Memory System/computer replaced by the AYK23 Central Computer, and will receive the USH-42 Video Data Recorder System.

Program Status: All avionics/navigation/computer upgrade programs have been approved for Limited-Rate or Full-Rate Production. Installations for USH-42 began in October 1997. All systems installations are scheduled to complete by FY 2005.

Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin, Fort Worth, Texas.

SH-60R Seahawk
Multi-mission Helicopter Upgrade

SH-60 in hanger

Description: The conversion of all SH-60B and SH-60F helicopters to SH-60R will result in a true multi-mission helicopter force. The SH-60R upgrade involves the remanufacture of existing Seahawk variants into an aircraft that will carry the Navy's tactical helicopter community through 2020. Implemented concurrently with an airframe Service Life Extension Program, the modifications to the SH-60R include an advanced multi-mode Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR), the Airborne Low Frequency (dipping) Sonar (ALFS), a greatly enhanced electronic support measures and self defense sensor suite, and upgraded mission computers that will significantly improve the multi-mission capability of the weapon system.

Program Status: Milestone II approval was granted in July 1993. An EMD contract was awarded in August 1993. LRIP1 will begin in FY 2000, and IOC is scheduled for FY 2002. With Milestone III scheduled for FY 2003, the program objective will result in 243 aircraft remanufactured to the SH-60R configuration.

Developer/Manufacturer: Prime contractor/avionics and system integration: Lockheed Martin, Owego, New York. Airframe modifications: Sikorsky, Stratford, Connecticut.

T-45TS
Undergraduate Jet Pilot Training System

T-45 on flightdeck

Description: The T-45TS provides Naval Aviation with a totally integrated jet pilot training system combining computer-based academics, simulators, T-45A Goshawk aircraft, and contractor-supplied maintenance and logistics support. The Goshawk replaces the T-2C and TA-4J trainer aircraft. The T-45TS represents the first time the Department of Defense has applied such a total concept to training military aviators.

Program Status: The T-45TS is fully operational at Naval Air Station (NAS), Kingsville, Texas. Procurement of the T-45C (digital configuration) is scheduled with associated ground training systems and support until 2003, with 12 aircraft budgeted in FY 2001 and four in FY 2002 for a total of 187 aircraft and 17 simulators. The operational T-45Cs are based at NAS Meridian, Mississippi, and training in the T-45C began in August 1999. T-45A conversion to the digital configuration will start in FY 2004.

Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, St. Louis, Missouri; and Rolls-Royce, Bristol, United Kingdom.

V-22 Osprey
Joint Advanced Vertical Aircraft

V-22 in flight

Description: The MV-22 Osprey is a tilt-rotor, Vertical/Short Take-Off or Landing (V/STOL) aircraft designed as the medium-lift replacement for the aging CH-46E and CH-53D helicopters. The MV-22 design incorporates advanced technologies in composite materials, survivability, airfoil design, fly-by-wire controls, digital avionics, and manufacturing. The MV-22 is capable of carrying 24 combat-equipped Marines or a 10,000-pound external load, and has a strategic self-deployment capability of 2,100 nautical miles with a single aerial refueling. The MV-22's 38-foot rotor system and engine/transmission nacelle mounted on each wingtip allow it to operate as a helicopter for take-off and landing. Once airborne, the nacelles rotate forward 90 degrees, converting the MV-22 into a high-speed, high-altitude, fuel-efficient turboprop aircraft. The MV-22 represents a revolutionary change in aircraft capability to meet expeditionary mobility needs for the 21st century. A Special Operation Forces (SOF) variant, CV-22, is also under development.

Program Status: The V-22 has completed developmental testing and the program is nearing the end of the EMD phase. Nineteen LRIP aircraft have been procured in three lots to support V-22 OPEVAL and initial Fleet fielding. The final LRIP lot of 11 aircraft is being procured in FY 2000. OPEVAL will determine the aircraft's effectiveness and suitability for the Marine Corps mission and support program entry into the final phase. OPEVAL will require use of the first four LRIP aircraft. The MS III Full Rate Production decision is expected in October 2000. The FY 2001 budget requests 16 aircraft. Once in Full Rate Production, the aircraft procurement rate will ramp to approximately 30 aircraft per year by FY 2003. The total budgeted buy for the Marine Corps, Navy and Air Force is 458 aircraft. The Marine Corps requirement is 360 aircraft.

Developer/Manufacturer: Bell Helicopter Textron, Fort Worth, Texas; Boeing Defense and Space Group, Helicopter Division, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Allison Engine Company, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Submarines

ASDS
Advanced Swimmer Delivery System

Drawing of ASDS

Description: This dry mini-submarine is 65 feet long, operated by a two-man crew, and can carry a Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) squad or other services' Special Operations Forces. The ASDS will conduct long-range clandestine insertions and extractions in support of special operations missions and will be launched either from a host submarine, much like the Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle (DSRV), or from the well decks of amphibious ships. This system eliminates the extended exposure to cold water inherent with in-service wet submersible Swimmer Delivery Vehicles (SDVs) and will result in reduced physical and mental fatigue of SOF team members.

Program Status: The U.S. Special Operations Command has funded procurement of all planned ASDSs. The first ASDS completed integration in late FY 1999 and will be homeported with SEAL Delivery Team One (SDVT ONE) in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. ASDSs are scheduled to be homeported in Hawaii and in Little Creek, Virginia (SDVT TWO). Modifications to in-service submarines that will host the ASDS are underway.

Developer/Manufacturer: Northrop Grumman, Annapolis, Maryland.

SSBN 726 Ohio Class
Nuclear-Powered Ballistic Missile Submarine

submarine underway

Description: The Ohio-class Trident fleet ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) is the Navy's contribution to the nation's strategic deterrent posture, which also includes long-range manned bombers and land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles. The SSBN is the most survivable and enduring leg of the strategic Triad., and therefore is one of the Navy's highest policy, program, and operational priorities. Each of the first eight Ohio-class ships are configured to carry 24 Trident I/C4 submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs). The ninth ship, the USS Tennessee (SSBN 734), and all later ships are armed with the Trident II/D5 missile system. Trident missiles are capable of carrying Multiple Independently Targeted Reentry Vehicles (MIRVs); in operation these missiles have been declared at eight MIRV warheads under the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START).

Program Status: All 18 of the Ohio-class SSBNs have been commissioned; the final ship of the class, the USS Louisiana(SSBN 743), joined the Fleet in FY 1997. Beginning in FY 2000, four of the first eight ships will be converted to carry the Trident II/D5 missile. Various proposals are under consideration regarding modifications to the other four early SSBNs that do not receive D5 back-fit, including conversion to enhanced land-attack/strike and Special Forces platforms.

Developer/Manufacturer: General Dynamics' Electric Boat Corporation, Groton, Connecticut.

SSN 21 Seawolf Class
Nuclear-Powered Attack Submarine

submarine underway

Description: The Seawolf-class attack submarines provide robust open-ocean sea control capabilities against current and future submarine threats, as well as significant multi-mission littoral warfare capabilities. The design emphasis in the Seawolf class is on high-submerged speed and deep operating depth, with significantly improved machinery quieting, combat systems, sensor systems, and payload capacity compared to the Improved Los Angeles (SSN 688I) attack submarines (SSN 751 and later units). Continuing trials of the SSN 21 have confirmed the ship's superior capabilities in all critical warfighting areas.

Program Status: The USS Seawolf was commissioned in July 1997, and the USS Connecticut (SSN 22), in December 1998. The third submarine of the class, Jimmy Carter (SSN 23), is under construction and will deliver in 2004. Jimmy Carter will be a unique multi-mission platform modified with additional volume and services to accommodate advanced technology for naval special warfare and tactical surveillance operations. The details of this modification and the advanced technologies, while classified, will support the Defense Science Board's 1998 recommendations for improved payload capabilities and a flexible interface with the undersea environment. This will be accomplished without sacrificing current Seawolf class multimission warfighting capability.

Developer/Manufacturer: General Dynamics' Electric Boat Corporation, Groton, Connecticut.

SSN 774 Virginia Class
Nuclear-Powered Attack Submarine

Viginia-class submarine drawing

Description: The Virginia class will provide advanced acoustic technology and, based on the 1999 Joint Chiefs of Staff Attack Submarine Study, need to be procured to sustain minimum essential attack submarine force levels as the Los Angeles (SSN 688)-class attack submarines leave the Fleet. The Virginia SSNs will perform traditional open-ocean anti-submarine and anti-surface missions, yet are specifically designed for multi-mission littoral and regional operations. These advanced submarines will be fully configured to conduct offensive and defensive mining operations, mine reconnaissance, Special Operations Forces insertion/extraction, battle group support, intelligence-collection and surveillance missions, sea-control operations, and land attack. Further, the Virginia SSNs will be specifically configured to adapt easily to special missions and emerging future requirements.

The 30-ship SSN 774 program is the first major program to implement acquisition reform initiatives fully. The tenets of the Virginia class affordability are Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD), modular construction, parts reduction, and aggressive insertion of advanced COTS technologies. The IPPD concept teams the Navy, shipbuilders, designers, and vendors to assure the most efficient and effective design early in the design process. Modular construction allows construction, assembly, and testing of systems prior to installation in the ship's hull, thereby reducing costs, minimizing rework, and simplifying system integration. The ship's modular design will also facilitate technology insertion in both new construction of future ships and back-fit into existing ships, throughout their 30-year service lives.

Program Status: The first four ships will be built under an innovative teaming arrangement between General Dynamics' Electric Boat Corporation (EB) and Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS). Under the teaming arrangement, construction of the first four ships will be shared by ship section. NNS will build the bow, stern, sail, and selected forward sections for each submarine. EB will build the hull sections, the engine room modules, and the command-and-control system operating spaces. EB will assemble and deliver the first and third ships; NNS the second and fourth. Construction of Virginia began in 1998, and the second submarine of the class, Texas (SSN 775), began construction in FY 1999. The third ship of the class is scheduled to begin construction in 2001. Virginia-class acquisition continues throughout the FYDP, at a rate of one ship per year due to limited resources.

Developer/Manufacturer: General Dynamics' Electric Boat Corporation, Groton, Connecticut; and Newport News Shipbuilding, Newport News, Virginia.

Surface Ships, Craft & Logistics Systems

COLDS
Cargo Offload and Discharge System

Description: The Cargo Offload and Discharge System includes the Cargo Offload and Transfer System (COTS) for dry cargo and the Offshore Petroleum Discharge System (OPDS) for liquid cargo. COLDS supports Logistics-Over-The-Shore (LOTS) operations—the loading and unloading of Marine Corps Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF) and Assault Follow-On Echelon (AFOE) ships in the absence of established port facilities.

Program Status: Routine replacement of these heavily used assets maintains LOTS readiness. Ongoing research and development efforts to provide a sea-state-three operational LOTS capability include a Joint Modular Lighter System (JMLS) Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) for lighterage, multiple projects for shipboard cranes, and various critical elements of the LOTS system of systems. JMLS ACTD prototype will be tested in 2000. The U.S. Joint Forces Command is the Demonstration Manager for the Military Utility Assessment (MUA) of the JMLS ACTD. The contract for the next-generation sea-state-three lighter is scheduled to be awarded in FY 2000 following the ACTD.

Developer/Manufacturer: To be determined.

CG 47 Ticonderoga Class
Aegis Guided Missile Cruiser Conversion Program

sailors manning the rail

Description: The 27 CG 47 class guided missile cruisers have combat systems centered on the Aegis Weapon System and the SPY-1 multi-function, phased-array radar. The Ticonderoga class' combat system includes the Standard Missile (SM-2), unparalleled air warfare systems, advanced anti-submarine warfare systems, embarked sea-control helicopters, and robust command-control-and-communications systems in a potent, multi-mission (ASW, AAW, and ASUW) ship. In addition, 22 of the 27 cruisers are equipped with the Mk 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS), giving them a significant land-attack/strike capability with the Tomahawk Land-Attack cruise Missile (TLAM). Ticonderoga-class cruisers provide multi-mission offensive and defensive capabilities, and can operate independently or as part of carrier battle groups, surface action groups, amphibious ready groups, and underway replenishment groups. Beginning in FY 2004, after incorporating new mission capabilities as part of the Cruiser Conversion Program, these ships will also provide area defense against ballistic missiles, as well as land-attack and area air-defense commander capability.

Program Status: The Cruiser Conversion Program is a mid-life warfighting capability upgrade for the Navy's Aegis guided missile cruisers. The Cruiser Conversion Program enables the Navy's deployment of Theater Ballistic Missile Defense (TBMD), extended-range Land Attack in support of the Marine Corps' concept of Operational Maneuver from the Sea (OMFTS), and Area Air Defense Commander (AADC) capability. The Cruiser Conversion improvements in warfighting capability will extend the Aegis combat system's capabilities against projected threats well into the 21st century. The 22 vertical launcher-equipped Aegis cruisers (CGs 52-73) are planned for conversion beginning in FY 2004. The five remaining non-vertical launcher Baseline 1 Aegis cruisers (CGs 47-51) are excellent candidates for upgrading to these new mission capabilities. A congressionally supported Baseline 1 conversion feasibility study is underway in FY 2000, but the conversion of these five ships is not currently affordable.

Developer/Manufacturer: Ingalls Shipbuilding, Pascagoula, Mississippi, and Lockheed Martin, Moorestown, New Jersey.

CVN 68 Nimitz Class and CVNX
Nuclear-Powered Aircraft Carriers

building carrier in shipyard

Description: Nimitz (CVN 68)-class nuclear-powered aircraft carriers are replacing the Navy's aging conventionally powered (oil-fired) carriers on a one-for-one basis, preserving and recapitalizing aircraft carrier battle group (CVBG) force levels to meet forward-presence, crisis-response, and warfighting requirements. The mission of the CVN 68-class aircraft carriers is to support and operate aircraft that engage in attack, surveillance, and electronic warfare against targets at sea, in the air, or ashore in support of Marines or joint forces. America's 12 carriers are forward-deployed world wide in support of U.S. strategy and commitments and are increasingly important as the Navy adjusts its emphasis toward littoral regions and land-based forces are brought home to the United States.

Since the mid/late-1960s when the baseline CVN 68 design was finalized, the Navy's carrier force has not had the advantage of an aggressive and robust research and development program to insert leading-edge technologies and systems into subsequent hulls. For this reason, and to ensure that the carrier/naval aviation force could meet the daunting operational requirements of the next century, in 1993 the Navy established a future sea-based air platforms working group to investigate the requirements, available technologies and systems, and needed R&D to ensure that a new class of aircraft carriers could capture elements of the incipient Revolutions in Military and Business Affairs. Based upon these initial studies, the Navy established an approach and program to develop an evolutionary-design next-generation nuclear carrier, CVNX, to reach the fleet in 2013, in time to replace the nation's first nuclear-powered carrier, the USS Enterprise (CVN 65), as that ship reaches 52 years of age. The Navy is crafting an evolutionary program that will incorporate warfighting improvements and acquisition, operations, and support cost-saving measures at an affordable pace, over three consecutive hulls beginning with CVN 77. Initial investments will be made in new integrated combat systems for CVN 77, which will be carried forward, along with other improvements, into the CVNX-1 and follow-on carriers, for example, an advanced nuclear plant and electrical distribution system. The principal design objectives for the CVNX class are to reduce total ownership costs significantly during each carrier's 50-year service life and to provide a flexible infrastructure that will facilitate the insertion of new warfighting capabilities as they evolve.

Program Status: Eight Nimitz-class carriers have been delivered through 1999; Ronald Reagan (CVN 76) is currently under construction and is scheduled to deliver in FY 2002. The President's FY 2001-2005 Future Years Defense Plan includes funding for CVN 77, a modified-repeat of the CVN 76, to replace the USS Kitty Hawk (CV 63) in 2008, and to serve as a transition ship to the CVNX carriers. A multi-year research and development program is also underway for CVNX, the first unit of which is planned to be requested in FY 2006 for an FY 2013 delivery to replace the USS Enterprise and sustain minimum essential carrier force levels. Aircraft carrier force levels have been set at 12 ships as a result of fiscal constraints; however, real-world experience and analysis indicate that a carrier force level of 15 ships is necessary to meet the warfighting CinCs' requirements for carrier presence in all regions of importance to the United States. Follow-on, evolutionary-enhanced CVNXs are planned for construction starts at roughly five-year intervals beyond 2006.

Developer/Manufacturer: Newport News Shipbuilding, Newport News, Virginia.

DD 21
Land-Attack Destroyer

DD-21 drawing

Description: The Land-Attack Destroyer (DD 21) is the first surface combatant founded entirely upon post-Cold War thinking and strategic concepts. Accordingly, the DD 21 design concept will support joint-service requirements in littoral regions. Armed with an array of land-attack weapons (see separate program summaries) including the Advanced Land Attack Missile (ALAM), Tactical Tomahawk (TACTOM) and the Advanced Gun System (AGS) firing Extended Range Guided Munitions (ERGM), DD 21 will provide sustained, offensive, distributed, and precise firepower at long ranges to support forces ashore and to conduct independent attacks on land targets in support of national objectives. With state-of-the-art information technologies, DD 21 will operate seamlessly with other naval, ground, and land-based air forces, and will be in accordance with the Navy's evolving "Network-Centric Warfare" concept of operations and IT21 architecture. The DD 21 program's emphasis on "sensor-to-shooter" connectivity will provide a naval or Joint Task Force commander with the multi-mission flexibility to destroy a wide variety of land targets while simultaneously countering maritime threats. Moreover, DD 21 will take advantage of advanced stealth features to make these warships less detectable to potential adversaries and more survivable to enemy attack.

The innovative DD 21 acquisition strategy calls for two major industry teams to propose independent designs that meet challenging operational requirements and aggressive affordability goals. Since the Navy is specifying capabilities rather than specific systems, the exact configuration for DD 21 has yet to be determined. Nevertheless, the combat capability of DD 21 will include a mix of sensors and weapons appropriate for a 21st century multi-mission surface warship. Additionally, in January 2000 the Secretary of the Navy announced that both industry teams are proposing an Integrated Power System for DD 21, making it the first surface combatant to include electric drive propulsion as part of an integrated ship's electrical power system. The DD 21 program continues to "push the envelope" in improved joint connectivity, advanced computing systems, reduced signatures (radar cross section, infrared, acoustic, magnetic, and active signature management techniques), and "optimal manning" areas. In addition to specifying a crew size objective of 95, the DD 21 Program Office is also aggressively engaged in identifying cost efficiencies in related shore-based and at-sea infrastructures. DD 21 has a procurement cost objective of $750 million (for the fifth ship in each shipyard in FY 1996 dollars) and an operating and support (O&S) cost objective of $2,700 (FY 1996) per hour underway (about one-third the O&S cost of a conventional surface combatant). Attainment of DD 21's challenging operational requirements and aggressive affordability goals requires appropriate research and development funding be maintained.

Program Status: While ultimately responsible for acquiring a "family" of next-generation surface combatants for the 21st Century (SC 21), PEO Surface Strike is initially concentrating on development of DD 21. On 12 January 1998, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology signed an ADM, approving PD&RR (Phase I) for DD 21. In August 1998, the Navy awarded an agreement for two competing industry teams to conduct requirements analyses and trade-off studies and to develop initial system concept designs. A DD 21 program review in September 1999 indicated the two industry teams are on track and making significant progress in development of their competing ship designs. Down-selection to a single design and "Full Service Contractor" is planned for 2001. Following lead ship award, the Navy plans to acquire 32 DD 21s at a rate of three ships per year, each with an expected service life of 35 years. The DD 21s will enter the Fleet as the Spruance (DD 963)-class destroyers (31 ships commissioned from 1975 to 1983) and the Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG 7)-class frigates (51 ships commissioned from 1977 to 1989) retire, sustaining the 116-ship surface combatant force level validated by the 1997 Quadrennial Defense Review. The 116-surface warship force objective may be reevaluated based on the 1999 Surface Combatant Force Level Study (SCFLS II) conclusion indicating that a future force of 139 multi-mission surface warships is needed to support current and projected military strategies and defense guidance. The current budget balanced this conclusion against other competing priorities within available resources.

Developer/Manufacturer: To be determined. The two conceptual-development teams are: Blue Team (Bath Iron Works, Bath Maine; and Lockheed Martin, Moorestown, New Jersey), and Gold Team (Ingalls Shipbuilding, Pascagoula, Mississippi; and Raytheon, San Diego, California).

DDG 51 Arleigh Burke Class
Aegis Guided Missile Destroyer

Destroyer launching

Description: The state-of-the-art DDG 51 guided missile destroyers have combat systems centered on the Aegis Weapon System and the SPY-1D multi-function, phased-array radar. Arleigh Burke's combat system includes the Mk 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS), an advanced anti-submarine warfare system, advanced anti-air warfare missiles, and Tomahawk cruise missiles. These ships will also provide future land-attack capability, as well as area-wide defense against ballistic and overland cruise missiles. Incorporating all-steel construction and gas-turbine propulsion, DDG 51 destroyers provide multi-mission offensive and defensive capabilities, and can operate independently or as part of carrier battle groups, surface action groups, amphibious ready groups, and underway replenishment groups. The Flight IIA variant incorporates facilities to support two embarked helicopters, significantly enhancing the ship's sea-control capabilities.

Program Status: Twenty-eight Arleigh Burke-class destroyers have been delivered through FY 1999, and 23 others are under contract and in various stages of construction, with six additional ships budgeted for FY 2002-2003. The class will total 57 ships. The first Flight IIA destroyer, Oscar Austin (DD 79), was launched in early FY 1999. A multi-year procurement of 12 ships in FY 1998 through 2001 was approved by Congress, which saves $1.4 billion compared to a conventional acquisition strategy. Congress in FY 2000 authorized the Navy to extend this current multi-year procurement to include the remaining destroyers. However, that extension is contingent upon the availability of advanced procurement funding in FY 2001. Three DDGs were approved in FYs 1999 and 2000, and the Navy has requested three more in FY 2001. The SPY-1D(V), an upgrade to the SPY-1 family of radars, successfully underwent the first phase of testing in 1996. This improved radar will keep these ships ahead of the emerging low-observable anti-ship cruise missile threat in the cluttered littoral operating environment. The improved SPY-1D(V) radar, as well as advanced architecture combat systems using commercially-developed processors and display equipment, will be introduced in DDG 91.

Developer/Manufacturer: Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine; Ingalls Shipbuilding, Pascagoula, Mississippi; and Lockheed Martin, Moorestown, New Jersey.

LCAC
Landing Craft, Air Cushion

LCAC during onload

Description: This high-speed, fully amphibious landing craft is capable of carrying a 60-ton payload (75 tons in overload) at speeds in excess of 40 knots at a nominal range of 200 nautical miles. Its ability to ride on a cushion of air allows it to operate directly from the well decks of amphibious warships. Carrying equipment, troops, and supplies, the LCAC launches from the well deck, transits at high speed, traverses the surf zone and lands at a suitable place ashore where it quickly offloads and returns to amphibious shipping for follow-on sorties. LCACs provide amphibious task force commanders flexibility in selecting landing sites. LCACs permit access to more than 70 percent of the world's beaches as compared with 17 percent for conventional landing craft.

Additionally, LCACs deliver vehicles and cargo directly onto dry land rather than in the surf zone. Moreover, LCACs are multi-mission craft that can conduct assault lane breaching, shallow-water mine countermeasures, and logistics support.

Program Status: IOC was achieved in 1986. Contracts for 91 LCACs were approved through FY 1997, with 90 craft delivered to the Fleet by the end of 1998. Delivery of LCAC 91 is scheduled for FY 2000. A Service Life Extension Program will begin in FY 2000 and will extend the LCAC's operational life from 20 years to 30 years.

Developer/Manufacturer: Textron Marine and Land Systems, New Orleans, Louisiana.

LHD 1 Wasp Class
Amphibious Assault Ship

LHD underway

Description: The Wasp class is a multi-purpose amphibious assault ship whose primary mission is to provide embarked commanders with requisite command and control capabilities for amphibious operations and to employ elements of a landing force through a combination of helicopters, landing craft, or amphibious vehicles. The LHD 1 class has a secondary mission of sea control. Amphibious forces are the centerpiece of a balanced naval expeditionary capability and provide rapid power projection ashore. These capabilities are significantly enhanced by the LHD 1 class, which increases total lift capacity by providing both a flight deck for helicopters and Vertical/Short Take-Off or Landing aircraft, such as the AV-8B Harrier and the V-22 Osprey, and a well deck for both air-cushioned and conventional landing craft.

Program Status: Six ships have been delivered to the Fleet, and one additional ship, Iwo Jima (LHD 7), is scheduled to be delivered in late 2000. The eighth ship of the class was authorized advanced procurement and construction in the FY 2000 Authorization Act.

Developer/Manufacturer: Ingalls Shipbuilding, Pascagoula, Mississippi.

LMSR
Large Medium-Speed Roll-On/Roll-Off Ship

LMSR underway

Description: The 1992 Department of Defense Mobility Requirements Study (MRS) defined the requirements for the LMSR program, which were revalidated in the MRS Bottom-Up Review of 28 March 1995. Nineteen LMSR Sealift Ships are being acquired: five through conversions of container ships to RO/ROs and 14 through new construction. LMSRs will provide the Army with eight ships for afloat prepositioning of a heavy brigade's equipment and combat support, and 11 ships for a heavy division's surge equipment from the United States. Each RO/RO ship will carry about 300,000 square feet of equipment and vehicles at a sustained speed of 24 knots.

Program Status: The five converted ships and five new construction ships have been delivered through FY 1999. New-construction contracts have been awarded for the remaining nine ships, with the last ship scheduled to be delivered in FY 2002.

Developer/Manufacturer: Avondale Industries, New Orleans, Louisiana; and NASSCO, San Diego.

LPD 17 San Antonio Class
Amphibious Transport Dock Ship

drawing of LPD-17

Description: The LPD 17 is an amphibious transport dock ship optimized for operational flexibility and designed to meet Marine Air-Ground Task Force lift requirements in the emerging Operational Maneuver from the Sea and Ship-to-Objective Maneuver concepts of operations. The LPD 17 is a medium-size (approximately 25,000 tons full load), medium-speed (greater than 20 knots, sustained) diesel-powered ship (four turbocharged diesels, two shafts, and two outboard rotating fixed-pitch propellers), of 684 feet in length, with a beam of 105 feet, and an estimated crew of 363. The LPD 17 will carry approximately 720 troops, and will have 25,000 square feet of space for vehicles, 36,000 cubic feet of cargo space, medical facilities (24 beds, two operating rooms), aviation facilities ("O"-level maintenance for a mix of helicopter and tilt-rotor aircraft), and two landing craft air cushion (LCAC) vehicles. Space and weight margins have been included in the design to incorporate additional systems, including a Vertical Launching System, should a future threat require the systems. The 12 LPD 17s in the current program will provide the functional replacement for 36 aging amphibious lift ships. In conjunction with the Wasp (LHD 1)-class, and Tarawa (LHA 1)-class amphibious assault ships, and 12 LSDs, the Navy will have the foundation for meeting the assault-echelon lift requirements of, based on fiscal constraints, 2.5 Marine Expeditionary Brigade (MEB) equivalents during wartime and sustaining approximately three forward-deployed Marine Expeditionary Units (MEUs) in peacetime.

Program Status: Initial contract award to design and build the lead ship of the class was awarded to the Avondale-Bath Alliance in December 1996. A contract award protest was successfully resolved in April 1997. Initial delivery is expected in FY 2003. All 12 ships are budgeted for procurement by FY 2004.

Developer/Manufacturer: Avondale Alliance (Avondale Industries, New Orleans, Louisiana; Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine; Raytheon, San Diego, California; and Intergraph, Huntsville, Alabama).

PC 1 Cyclone Class
Patrol Coastal Ship

Cyclone-class ship underway

Description: The PC is a commissioned small warship primarily intended for operations in the littoral/shallow coastal waters. PCs replaced the Navy's Mk III and Mk IV patrol boats (PBs). The PC is 170.5 feet in length and displaces in excess of 340 tons. The propulsion plant comprises four 3,600 bhp diesel engines driving four shafts, making a top speed in excess of 35 knots. Range is greater than 2000 nautical miles at 12 knots. Manning is four officers and 24 enlisted personnel, not including embarked Special Operations Forces (SOF) in dedicated berthing spaces. The PC is armed with hand-held Stinger surface-to-air missiles, two Mk 38 mounts (with 25mm chain guns), and several mounts that will accept 12.7mm or 7.62mm machine guns and/or 40mm grenade launchers. The need for this type of small combatant was validated during Operation Earnest Will in the Arabian Gulf in 1987-88, revalidated during Operations Desert Shield/Storm, and is further justified by potential maritime SOF employment in all unified areas of responsibility. PCs conduct and support special operations missions, primarily the long range insertion and extraction of SOF. Other missions include special reconnaissance (coastal patrol), direct action (interdiction), foreign internal defense, maritime intercept operations, and deception (usually in support of amphibious operations). PCs are unique in that each is a U.S. Navy commissioned ship, but operational leadership and resource sponsorship are provided by the Commander, Naval Special Warfare Command, the naval component of the U.S. Special Operations Command.

Program Status: The lead ship, the USS Cyclone (PC 1), was funded in FY 1990 and entered service in August 1993. Originally, Naval Special Warfare planned to procure a total of 16 PCs, but the program was reduced to the 13 ships that have been commissioned. As a result of congressional action, a fourteenth ship has been acquired, with commissioning scheduled for May 2000 to coincide with PC 1 decommissioning. Due to fiscal constraints, PCs 2 - 7 will be decommissioned at a rate of two per year between FY 2002-04. Patrol Coastals 1 - 7 will ultimately be transferred to the U.S. Coast Guard to aid in Caribbean drug interdiction operations and other maritime security missions.

Developer/Manufacturer: Bollinger Shipyards, Houma, Louisiana.

T-ADC(X)
Auxiliary Dry Cargo Carrier

helo during unrep

Description: The Auxiliary Dry Cargo Carrier is being developed to replace the Kilauea (T-AE 26), Mars (T-AFS 1), and Sirius (T-AFS 8) classes of fleet auxiliaries, all of which are nearing the end of their service lives. T-ADC(X) will provide logistic lift from sources of supply and will transfer this cargo at sea to station ships (which serve the combat forces) and other naval forces. As a secondary mission, T-ADC(X) may act in concert with a T-AO fleet oiler as a substitute station ship. T-ADC(X) ships will be built to commercial standards and will be crewed by U.S. Merchant Marine or Military Sealift Command civilian mariners, augmented by military personnel as required by mission requirements. For example, a military detachment will support communications and cargo supply functions. Helicopter operations will be conducted by a Navy aviation detachment or equivalent commercial helicopters.

Program Status: The T-ADC(X) Analysis of Alternatives validated a need for 12 T-ADC(X) ships to meet peacetime and wartime lift requirements. T-ADC(X) acquisition is planned as a two-phase program. The first phase, cargo flow design and development, is in progress. Detailed design and construction, the second phase, is expected to commence late in FY 2000. Initial procurement will commence in FY 2000, and one ship has been budgeted in FY 2001. IOC is scheduled for FY 2005 after the lead ship completes its post-shakedown availability.

Developer/Manufacturer: Phase One: Avondale Industries, New Orleans, Louisiana; Halter Marine Industries, Pascagoula, Mississippi; Ingalls Shipbuilding, Pascagoula, Mississippi; and National Steel and Shipbuilding Company, San Diego, California.

T-AGOS
Ocean Surveillance Ship

T-AGOS ship underway

Description: T-AGOS ocean surveillance ships are small, civilian-manned auxiliary ships that play a prominent role in augmenting the Navy's overall anti-submarine warfare capability. There are eight total ships in three classes: a three-ship monohull Stalwart (T-AGOS 1) class, a four-ship twin-hull Victorious (T-AGOS 19) class, and a single leased vessel, the R/V Cory Chouest. The Victorious class is a Small Waterplane Area Twin-Hull (SWATH) design that allow the ships to operate in relatively high seas. T-AGOS ships provide a platform for the Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System (AN/UQQ-2 SURTASS). T-AGOS is the Navy's premier long-range, mobile, surface ASW platform capable of detecting modern submarine targets. Although these ships are part of the Military Sealift Command's Naval Fleet Auxiliary Force (NFAF), they come under the operational control of fleet commanders.

Program Status: Impeccable (T-AGOS 23), a single large (5,500-ton) SWATH ship, designed as a platform for SURTASS Low Frequency Active (LFA), is under construction and is scheduled for delivery in July 2000.

Developer/Manufacturer: Halter Marine, Inc., Moss Point, Mississippi.

T-AGS 60
Oceanographic Survey Ship

diver

Description: T-AGS 60-class oceanographic survey ships provide multi-purpose oceanographic survey and data collection capabilities in littoral, coastal, and deep-ocean areas, including: physical, chemical, and biological environmental investigations; marine geology and geophysics; and bathymetric, gravimetric, and magnometric surveying. Typical missions of T-AGS 60 ships include oceanographic sampling and multi-layer data collection, and the launch, recovery, and tow of scientific packages, using both tethered and autonomous remotely operated vehicles.

Program Status: These ships are replacements for technically obsolete or single-purpose ships. A total of six ships are planned; four have been delivered from FY 1994 to FY 1998. The fifth, Bruce C. Heezen (T-AGS 64), was scheduled for delivery in early FY 2000, and a sixth ship (T-AGS 65) is under contract for delivery in December 2001.

Developer/Manufacturer: Halter Marine, Inc., Moss Point, Mississippi.


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