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Chapter 3: Requirements into Capabilities

Weapons Airborne | Submarine | Surface

Airborne Weapons

Standoff Land-Attack Missile

pilot in cockpit

Description: SLAM-Expanded Response (ER) is Naval Aviation's follow-on to the SLAM Stand-off Outside Area Defense (SOAD) weapon. It is a day/night, adverse-weather, precision-strike weapon with over-the-horizon range. SLAM is based on the highly successful and reliable Harpoon anti-ship missile, with a Global Positioning System-aided Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) for mid-course guidance, a Maverick imaging infrared sensor, and a Walleye data link for precise, "man-in-the-loop" terminal guidance. SLAM-ER, an evolutionary upgrade of SLAM, provides the Navy and Marine Corps with a major improvement in precision-strike capability. A modified Tomahawk warhead improves lethality and penetration, and new planar wings double the range and allow terrain-following flight. Mission planning time has been reduced to less than 30 minutes, and targeting has been improved via a "freeze frame" command that reduces pilot workload.

ordnance on wing

SLAM-ER+ will further increase the missile's effectiveness with inclusion of an Automatic Target Acquisition (ATA) seeker, making it an autonomous weapon and enhancing the missile's capability against small targets and targets in urban environments. ATA uses a matching algorithm to recognize both the aimpoint as well as the surrounding scene, reducing the requirement for manual pilot intervention via a data link.

Program Status: SLAM reached IOC in 1991 and was procured through FY 1995. SLAM-ER has successfully completed developmental /operational testing (with eight-of-eight successful missions), and is scheduled to completed OPEVAL in early FY 2000. Full rate production of SLAM-ER+ will begin in FY 2000.

Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, St. Louis, Missouri.

High-Speed Anti-Radiation Missile

aircraft firing missle

Description: A joint-service program with the Navy as lead service, HARM is the Navy's only anti-radiation, defense-suppression, air-to-surface missile. It has been employed against targets in the 1986 Gulf of Sidra crisis and the 1991 Gulf War, as well as more recently in Operations Allied Force and Desert Fox and in defense of "no-fly" zones above Iraq. HARM is designed to destroy or suppress broadcasting enemy electronic emitters, especially those associated with radar sites used to direct anti-aircraft guns and surface-to-air missiles. The AGM-88B (Block III) and the AGM-88C (Block IV) are currently being upgraded to the Block IIIA and Block V, respectively. These upgrades will provide increased capability against blanking and blinking radars as well as increasing shutter life, adding capability against complex wave forms, and having improved control of the missile's geographic footprint via glide inhibit. This last improvement will reduce potential collateral damage and damage to friendly forces in the target area. HARM Block V will also add a capability to home on high-power GPS jamming equipment. In addition, a new Block VI upgrade is underway as a tri-national (Germany, Italy, and the United States) cooperative project. This international upgrade will add GPS to a precision inertial navigation suite (IMU/GPS) and new software. The IMU/GPS improvements will nearly eliminate fratricide; allow HARM to more readily attack the shutdown, blanking, or blinking target; and permit its use as a precision-guided munition (point-to-point capability). Finally, a major technology demonstration is also underway as a Small Business Innovative Research project, for the Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile (AARGM). The AARGM project seeks to improve on Block VI by adding an improved ARM detection system and an improved counter-shutdown capability via a millimeter wave terminal seeker.

Program Status: The missile is out of production and FY 1992 was the last year for Navy all-up rounds. Developmental and operational testing of Block IIIA (88B) and Block V (88C) upgrades have completed. Approximately 3,300 missiles will receive the Block IIIA upgrade and 2,200 missiles will receive the Block V upgrade. The Block VI is currently in EMD, which will continue through FY 2002. Discussion has begun with the international partners on moving from EMD to production.

Developer/Manufacturer: HARM: Raytheon, Lewisville, Texas. AARGM: SAT, Inc., San Diego, California.

Joint Standoff Weapon

JSOW on wing

Description: A new family of Stand-off Outside Point Defense (SOPD) weapons was introduced to the Fleet with the introduction of the Joint Stand-Off Weapon (JSOW) in 1999. A key joint Navy-Air Force weapon development program, with the Navy as the lead service, JSOW will replace five types of the older air-to-ground weapons currently in the naval inventory. Its effectiveness already proven in both Operations Allied Force and Southern Watch, the JSOW family of precision-guided weapons allow naval aircraft to attack targets at increased stand-off distances, greatly increasing aircraft survivability. JSOW is usable in adverse weather conditions, and, like the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM), gives aircrews the ability to attack multiple targets in a single sortie. The JSOW family uses a common weapon body for all variants. The AGM-154A variant carries BLU-97 combined-effect bomblets for use against area targets. To provide anti-armor capability, the AGM-154B variant carries BLU-108 submunitions — providing a lethal and autonomous warhead for hard target and mobile target penetration. A third variant, the AGM-154C, is being developed with a unitary 500 pound warhead to provide a blast-fragmentation capability.

Program Status: AGM-154A IOC reached in 1999. AGM-154B and AGM-154C variants are expected to reach IOC in FY 2002 and FY 2003, respectively. Procurement of all three variants continues across the FYDP, limited in quantity due to available fiscal resources.

Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon: Tucson, Arizona.

Sidewinder Short-Range Air-to-Air Missile

aircrewman with missile

Description: The AIM-9X is a major modification to the AIM-9M Sidewinder. The program upgrades the missile with a focal plane array guidance control section, a highly maneuverable airframe, and signal processors that enhance its kinematics and infrared countermeasures capabilities. The missile will provide U.S. fighters with air superiority well into the next century. The missile's high off-boresight capability can be coupled to a helmet-mounted cueing system that will revolutionize the way in which air-to-air missiles are employed. The Navy's F/A-18C/D/E/F Hornet and the Air Force's F-16 Fighting Falcon, F-15 Eagle, and F-22 aircraft are currently scheduled to carry the AIM-9X.

Program Status: The 18-month Demonstration/ Validation program was completed in the summer 1996. An EMD phase began in FY 1997, and IOC is scheduled for FY 2002.

Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon, Tucson, Arizona.

Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile

hornet in flight

Description: The AIM-120 AMRAAM missile is deployed on the F/A-18C/D Hornet, and will be deployed on the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) aircraft. Joint U.S. Air Force and Navy procurement of AMRAAM continues, and deliveries of the AIM-120C are under way. The AIM-120C Pre-Planned Product Improvement (P3I) Program is a key factor in maintaining air superiority into the next century. This modernization plan includes clipped wings for internal carriage, a propulsion enhancement program, increased warhead lethality, and enhanced electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) capabilities through hardware and software upgrades. Ultimately, AMRAAM will be the Department of the Navy's sole Medium/Beyond Visual Range (M/BVR) missile. As part of the continuing weapons neck-down strategy, the radar-guided AIM-54C Phoenix and AIM-7M Sparrow are out of production, and no further software or hardware improvements are planned for these legacy weapons.

Program Status: Deliveries of the reprogrammable AIM-120B began reaching the Fleet in April 1995, followed by the AIM-120C in 1996. The joint AMRAAM procurement and an aggressive P3I program are continuing throughout the FYDP.

Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon, Tucson, Arizona.

Joint Direct Attack Munition

JDAM on wing

Description: The Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) is a multi-service effort, with the Air Force as the lead service, for a strap-on, Global Positioning System-aided Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) guidance kit to improve the accuracy of existing 1,000 pound and 2,000 pound general-purpose bombs in all weather conditions. JDAM is a true force multiplier allowing a single aircraft to attack multiple targets from a single release point and has been proven in recent operations in both Iraq and Kosovo. A Product Improvement Program (PIP) AoA is underway to assess the utility of improvements such as an autonomous seeker, improved GPS, and a range extension to the JDAM unit.

Program Status: LRIP for the 2,000 pound bombs began in FY 1997, and Milestone III is planned for FY 2000. The 1,000 pound JDAM kit is scheduled for a FY 2001 IOC. Procurement of JDAM continues across the FYDP, limited in quantity due to available fiscal resources.

Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, St. Louis, Missouri.

Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System

Description: The Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System (RAMICS) Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) program is a helicopter-borne weapon system that will fire a special 20-30mm supercavitating projectile from a modified Gatling gun to neutralize surface and near-surface mines. At the heart of this system is a supercavitating projectile that is specially designed for traveling tactical distances in air and water and driving a chemical initiator through a casing into the mine. The Gatling gun is controlled by a fire-control system with targeting algorithims coupled with a light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system. The LIDAR locates and targets the mines, providing aiming coordinates to the gun's fire control system to fire a burst of rounds at the mine causing immediate and positive mine neutralization.

Program Status: The Office of Naval Research (ONR) has scheduled three demonstrations, each with an exit milestone for the RAMICS ATD. The first demonstration, which occurred during the fourth quarter of FY 1998, successfully verified potential technologies, including long-range projectile lethality against key mine types. The second demonstration, which is scheduled to complete in February 2000, will validate complete system integration and targeting from a static test platform. The final demonstration, which is scheduled for the fourth quarter of FY 2000, will determine military effectiveness of the integrated RAMICS system on the AH-1W Super Cobra helicopter. Results will establish the feasibility of employing RAMICS from an organic CH-60S helicopter. The RAMICS program is scheduled for a Milestone II decision in FY 2001 and an IOC in FY 2006.

Developer/Manufacturer: ATD: Raytheon, Portsmouth, Rhode Island.

Submarine Weapons

Improved Submarine-Launched Mobile Mine

submarine during emergency blow

Description: The in-service Mk 67 SLMM, the Navy's sole submarine-launched, multi-purpose (anti-submarine and -surface) mobile mine is increasingly obsolescent and is being phased out of the inventory. Based on an early 1960s-era Mk 37 torpedo, the current weapon's stand-off distance and placement accuracy are inadequate for many littoral warfare missions, its capability to detect many key targets is in doubt, and it is becoming increasingly costly to maintain. In light of these shortcomings of the existing weapon, and because of the significant "force-multiplier" value of naval mines, the Navy has decided to pursue an innovative modification of early variants of the Mk 48 heavyweight torpedo to an Improved SLMM configuration. A joint effort between the United States Navy and the Royal Australian Navy, ISLMM will enable the clandestine capability to plant minefields from a safe standoff distance throughout the world's littoral regions, to interdict military and hostile commercial traffic, and thereby support sea control and battlespace dominance needs. ISLMM characteristics offer increased range and precision placement accuracy, course-change capabilities, low-cost maintenance, and greater loadout for the delivery submarine. Armed with two warheads, each ISLMM will be able to attack two separate targets. The Mk 48-based delivery vehicle will be compatible with all current and future submarine torpedo rooms and tubes.

Program Status: The ISLMM Cooperative Project will enter a three-year EMD Phase beginning in FY 2002 followed by a three-year procurement phase beginning in FY 2005.

Developer/Manufacturer: To be determined.

Mk 48 ADCAP Torpedo
Advanced Capability Heavyweight Torpedo

Description: All U.S. attack and ballistic missile submarines (SSN and SSBNs) carry the Mk 48 torpedo. The improved Mk 48 ADCAP is carried by the Seawolf (SSN 21)-class, Los Angeles (SSN 688)-class, Sturgeon (SSN 637)-class, and Ohio (SSBN 726)-class submarines; it will also arm the Virginia (SSN 774)-class submarines. The Mk 48 ADCAP's upgraded guidance and propulsion systems enable U.S. submarines to attack hostile surface ships or submarines in the presence of torpedo countermeasures and in adverse environmental conditions, including shallow water. A modification to the ADCAP (ADCAP MOD) increases guidance and control speed and memory, and significantly reduces radiated noise. Both torpedoes combat fast, deep-diving nuclear submarines and high-performance surface ships. The ADCAP is also effective against the diesel submarine (SSK) threat in the littoral environment, and the ADCAP MOD will improve the torpedo's performance against all threats in all operational environments. Both variants can operate with or without wire guidance using active and/or passive homing, and can execute preprogrammed search and attack procedures.

A follow-on hardware upgrade, known as Common Broadband Advanced Sonar System (CBASS), began development in FY 1998. CBASS will further enhance the torpedo's performance against modern SSNs and SSKs employing advanced countermeasures.

Program Status: ADCAP MODs upgrade production began in FY 1995. An additional 85 torpedoes are to be upgraded in FY 2000, with the remaining 336 weapons to be upgraded between FY 2001 and 2005. CBASS MODs are scheduled for implementation on 313 torpedoes between FY 2003 and 2006.

Developer/Manufacturer: ADCAP MOD: Raytheon, Fullerton, California. CBASS: To be determined.

UGM-133A Trident II/D5
Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile

Trident launch from sea

Description: The Trident II/D5 is the sixth generation of the U.S. Navy's Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) program, which started in 1955. The D5 is a three-stage, solid-propellant, inertial-guided submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) with a range greater than 4,000 nautical miles and accuracy measured in hundreds of feet. The Ohio (SSBN 726)-class submarines each carry 24 Trident missiles—Trident I/C4 on the first eight ships stationed in Bangor, Washington, and Trident II/D5 on the ten ships stationed in Kings Bay, Georgia. Beginning in FY 2000, four of the C4 ships will be converted to carry the Trident II/D5 missile. Trident II missiles are capable of carrying W76 or W88 Multiple Independently Targeted Reentry Vehicles (MIRVs). In operation, these missiles have been declared at eight MIRV warheads under the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START). The Navy continues to address future deterrence requirements against weapons of mass destruction, and the Trident II/D5 will ensure that the United States has a modern, survivable strategic deterrent.

Program Status: Production of 70 D5 missiles remains to reach the inventory objective of 425 missiles for 14 Trident II/D5 SSBNs in two oceans. Planned procurement through FY 2005 is 5-to-12 missiles per year.

Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin, Sunnyvale, California.

Surface Weapons

Advanced Gun System

AGS on DD-21

Description: AGS is a 155mm Gun Weapon System planned for installation in the DD-21 Land-Attack Destroyers to provide high-volume, sustainable fires in support of amphibious operations and the joint land battle. AGS is a fully integrated gun weapon system that will include at least two separate gun systems for each DD-21 warship. Each gun system will be capable of independently firing up to 12 rounds per minute from an automated magazine storing as many as 750 rounds. The AGS program also includes development of a 155mm version of the Extended-Range Guided Munitions (ERGM, see separate program summary) as the first of a family of AGS munitions. AGS is being designed to meet the reduced manning and low radar-signature requirements of DD-21.

Program Status: The program started in FY 1999. The first gun system is scheduled for delivery to DD-21 in FY 2006, with an IOC of 2008. The AGS and its associated family of munitions are being developed under constrained affordability.

Developer/Manufacturer: United Defense Limited Partnership, Minneapolis, Minnesota, in partnership with the two DD-21 industry teams.

Advanced Land-Attack Missile

Description: ALAM will provide DD-21 Land-Attack Destroyers, and possibly Aegis surface warships and attack/guided missile submarines, a surface/subsurface fire support weapon with the range, lethality, responsiveness, and accuracy to support Marine Corps Fire Support requirements for Operational Maneuver from the Sea and Ship to Objective Maneuver. ALAM will provide future deep-strike and interdiction fire support against a broader target set than is possible today, including armored, mobile, and hardened targets, with greatly enhanced lethality.

Program Status: The 18-month AoA began in September 1999. A two year multi-contractor Demonstration/Validation period will commence in FY 2001, followed by a contract award and commencement of EMD phase in FY 2004. ALAM IOC will be coincidental with the introduction of DD-21 in 2008.

Developer/Manufacturer: To be determined.

Assault Breaching Programs

LCAC on beach

Description: The Assault Breaching Programs encompass several projects to counter the threats to naval forces from current and projected future land and naval mines and obstacles in shallow water, very shallow water, and surf zone approaches to amphibious operating areas. It also includes craft landing zones ashore for amphibious assault craft and air-cushioned vehicles. Systems being developed for explosive clearance in this challenging environment include the Shallow-Water Assault Breaching (SABRE) system, Distributed Explosive Technology (DET) system, and the Explosive Neutralization Pre-Planned Product Improvement (ENP3I) Program.

SABRE is a rocket-launched explosive line charge launched from a Landing Craft Air Cushion vehicle and is designed to clear assault lanes in the 10-foot to 3-foot region of the surf zone. DET is a rocket-launched explosive net, also launched from an LCAC, designed to clear the remainder of the lanes in the 3-foot to shore region of the surf zone. The ENP3I program is a pre-planned product improvement to SABRE and DET. It will provide increased LCAC survivability and system accuracy through development of a fire control system, LCAC autopilot, and extended-range rockets.

Program Status: SABRE and DET are basic explosive systems designed to operate together to meet near-term operational requirements, and are scheduled to be fielded beginning in FY 2001. Production of the ENP3I improvements to SABRE and DET will begin in FY 2004.

Developer/Manufacturer: To be determined.

Tomahawk/Tactical Tomahawk Land-Attack Cruise Missile

tomahawk launch from ship

Description: The Tomahawk Land-Attack Missile (TLAM) is the Navy's premier, all-weather, long-range, subsonic land-attack cruise missile deployed on surface warships and submarines. The TLAM/C (BGM-109C) variant is armed with a unitary conventional warhead, while the TLAM/D (BGM-109D) variant is armed with submunitions. TLAM is guided by on-board Inertial Navigation System (INS) and Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM) system, which correlates actual terrain contour with stored terrain contour. Additional accuracy is attained through multiple Digital Scene Matching Area Correlation (DSMAC) updates, which take digital pictures of the terrain and compares them with stored digital map. TLAM Block III improves accuracy and global strike capability with addition of Global Positioning System guidance capability and improved DSMAC IIA. The upgraded Tactical Tomahawk preserves Tomahawk's long-range precision-strike capability while significantly increasing responsiveness and flexibility. The follow-on Tactical Tomahawk improvements include:

Program Status: The Tactical Tomahawk program was initiated in FY 1998 and will reach IOC in FY 2003. Tomahawk procurements are projected to meet the current requirements, but assume no contingency usage or operational expenditures. Additional Tactical Tomahawk procurement is constrained by affordability.

Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon, Tucson, Arizona.

Extended-Range Guided Munition

Extended-Range Guided Munition

Description: The Extended-Range Guided Munition is a 12-caliber rocket-assisted projectile carrying a 4-caliber submunitions payload. The 110-pound aerodynamic projectile is five inches in diameter and 61 inches in length, uses a coupled Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) guidance system, and is armed with a submunitions warhead. The GPS guidance is tightly coupled to an inertial guidance system that is immune to jamming, which will enable the ERGM round to attack targets in a heavy electronic countermeasures environment. The initial warhead configuration for ERGM will consist of 72 EX-1 submunitions per round. The EX-1 is a variant of the U.S. Army-developed M80 Dual-Purpose Improved Conventional Munition (DPICM), which incorporates a shaped charge and an enhanced fragmentation case for use against material and personnel targets. The ERGM's submunitions will be uniformly dispensed within a pre-determined area that depends upon the specific target to be attacked and the altitude at which the submunitions are released. ERGM's range and precise GPS targeting capability will improve Naval Surface Fire Support (NSFS) and provide near-term gunfire support for amphibious operations, suppression and destruction of hostile anti-shipping weapons and air defense systems, and naval fires support to the joint land battle.

Program Status: Milestone I/II was reached in July 1996, allowing the ERGM to enter EMD. Developmental work continues as the program has encountered several technical challenges during the past year. Work continues on increasing submunitions lethality, designing the highly accurate guidance system that can withstand the harsh environment of a gun barrel, and other areas to provide cost-effective, accurate and lethal munitions that meet the Naval Surface Fire Support requirements. An independent review by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory confirmed that the Navy should "stay the course with ERGM as it will serve the Navy, the Marine Corps, the Army, and the Nation very well in the future."

Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon, Tucson, Arizona.

Land-Attack Standard Missile

Burke-class destroyer underway

Description: The Land-Attack Standard Missile is a land-attack variant of the Navy's Standard (SM-2) surface-to-air missile (see separate program summaries for the SM-2 missiles). LASM will provide Aegis surface warships a surface fire support weapon with the range, lethality, responsiveness, and accuracy needed to meet Marine Corps naval fires requirements for Operational Maneuver from the Sea. LASM is a supersonic missile launched from the Mk 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS). It employs a highly effective Mk 125 blast-fragmentation warhead and GPS/INS guidance system for precision guidance.

Program Status: Programmed funding for LASM starts in FY 2000 and LASM IOC is planned for FY 2003. The procurement objective is 800 missiles. The first successful LASM concept demonstration flight occurred 21 November 1997 at the White Sands Missile Range. There have been two additional flight demonstrations and two warhead arena tests—all successful. Ongoing efforts include risk-reduction and engineering analysis and testing with EMD scheduled to commence in early FY 2000. A relatively low-risk missile-modification program, LASM development and procurement is limited by the funding that has been balanced within available resources.

Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon, Tucson, Arizona.

Mk 15 CIWS
Phalanx Close-In Weapon System

sailor inspecting CIWS

Description: The Mk 15 Phalanx Close-In Weapon System is an integral element of the Ship Self-Defense System (SSDS) and the anti-air warfare defense-in-depth concept. CIWS is a radar-controlled, rapid-fire gun that provides fast-reaction, terminal-defense against anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs) penetrating outer fleet defenses, as well as other airborne and surface targets. CIWS is capable of firing 4,500 rounds per minute and is integrated with a search-and-track radar and weapon-control unit. A unique closed-loop fire control system that tracks both the incoming target and the stream of outgoing projectiles gives CIWS the capability to correct its aim to hit fast-moving and maneuvering targets. Enhancements to the baseline CIWS include the new High Order Language Computer (HOLC), which improves Phalanx performance against high-speed maneuvering targets. The Phalanx Surface Mode (PSUM), CIWS IB, uses electro-optical systems to provide day/night detection capability and enables the CIWS to engage surface targets and slow-moving air targets, e.g., helicopters and small aircraft.

Program Status: More than 400 CIWS systems have been deployed at sea on U.S. warships since the system was first tested in August 1973. Development and Operational Testing (DT/OT) of the HOLC fire-control system completed in FY 1996, using the Self-Defense Test Ship. Testing of the Phalanx Surface Mode capability completed in FY 1998, and initial delivery is planned for FY 2000.

Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon, Tucson, Arizona.

Mk 45 Mod 4
Five-Inch Gun System Upgrade

Description: The Mk 45 Mod 4 Gun system will enhance Naval Surface Fire Support capabilities and provide fire mission flexibility for anti-surface and anti-air warfare. The 5-inch (127mm) 62 caliber Mk 45 Mod 4 gun incorporates structural improvements to accommodate higher energies required to fire the new Extended-Range Guided Munition (ERGM, see separate program summary). In addition to firing ERGM rounds, the Mk 45 Mod 4 gun retains the capability to load and fire the current inventory of conventional 5-inch ballistic ammunition. Other modifications include a longer 62-caliber barrel, an Ammunition Recognition System, a Gun/ERGM interface and a new digital control system. Improvements in the ammunition magazine associated with the new Mk 45 Mod 4 gun have also been developed to facilitate stowage of the larger ERGM rounds and assist shipboard ammunition handling personnel with handling and loading the gun. The Mk 45 Mod 4 gun will be forward fit in Arleigh Burke-class Aegis destroyers (DDGs 81-107) and backfit in Ticonderoga-class Aegis cruisers (CGs 52-73) as part of the Cruiser Conversion Program (see separate program summary).

Program Status: Milestone I/II was reached in January 1996, allowing the Mk45 Mod 4 Gun to enter EMD. The Navy awarded the Mk45 Mod 4 gun design and development contract on 5 February 1996. Three Mk 45 Mod 4 kits have been produced to facilitate development and testing. The first kit was installed in a proof of concept gun, which successfully completed testing in July 1997 at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren (NSWC/DD), Virginia. The second kit was installed in a government-furnished Mk 45 mount and began Land-Based Testing in August 1998 at NSWC/DD. The third kit was installed in a new Mk 45 gun that was shipped to Bath Iron Works in June 1999 and installed in the Winston Churchill (DDG 81) in November 1999. All critical exit criteria associated with land-based testing were met allowing for LRIP approval on 12 April 1999 of the first 17 guns. The Mk 45 Mod 4 Gun IOC is planned for FY 2001. The program's procurement rate has been balanced within available resources.

Developer/Manufacturer: United Defense Limited Partnership, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Mk 54 LHT
Lightweight Hybrid Torpedo

 Mk 54 Lightweight Hybrid Torpedo

Description: The Mk 54 Lightweight Hybrid Torpedo is a modular upgrade to the lightweight torpedo inventory and is designed to counter quiet diesel-electric submarines operating in the shallow-water littoral environment. LHT combines existing torpedo hardware and software from the Mk 46, Mk 50, and Mk 48 Advanced Capability (ADCAP) programs with advanced digital COTS electronics. The resulting Mk 54 LHT offers significantly improved shallow-water counter-countermeasures capability at reduced life-cycle costs.

Program Status: MS II was achieved in FY 1996 along with an EMD contract award. A successful CDR was held in November 1999 with developmental testing beginning in July 1999. The LRIP contract was awarded in early FY 2000 and OPEVAL and Milestone III decision are scheduled for FY 2002. IOC is scheduled for FY 2003.

Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon, Mukilteo, Washington.

Naval Mines

Description: The Navy's mine research and development programs are focusing on the need to improve the effectiveness of U.S. naval mines in joint expeditionary warfare scenarios. Although very capable, the current Quick Strike family of bottom mines will be enhanced by incorporating the programmable Target Detecting Device (TDD) Mk 71, which provides new advanced algorithms for ship detection, classification, and localization against likely threats—e.g., quiet diesel-electric submarines, mini-subs, fast patrol boats, and air cushioned vehicles. In the near-term future, exploratory research will pursue multi-influence (acoustic, magnetic, pressure, seismic) sensing and data fusion, standoff wireless mine and mobile warhead control, and cooperative minefields and mobile warhead concept evaluation. Engineering development efforts include advanced mine algorithms for ship detection, classification, and localization; development of a remote control (RECO) for mines program; and a three-year joint Navy Laboratory/Industry advanced technology demonstration program for the next-generation medium depth naval sea mine.. A Cooperative Development Program of the U.S. Navy and the Royal Australian Navy has commenced for an Improved Submarine-Launched Mobile Mine (ISLMM, see separate program summary).

Program Status: RECO and LSM program began research and development in FY 2000 and will continue through FY 2001. TDD Mk 71 reached Milestone III in 1995, but procurement has been delayed due to lack of available funding; procurement of TDD Mk 71 is now scheduled to begin in FY 2001. The Office of Naval Research sponsored joint Navy/Industry medium depth mine technology demonstration program began in FY 1999 and will conclude in FY 2001.

Developer/Manufacturer: To be determined.

Navy Aerial Targets

 Navy Aerial Targets

Description: The Navy Aerial Target Program provides the ability to test and train against realistic threats—high-altitude supersonic diving missiles, aircraft, subsonic sea-skimming anti-ship cruise missiles, supersonic sea-skimming cruise missiles, and ballistic missiles. The Navy Aerial Target Program assesses foreign threats, develops new targets to replicate the threats, and procures the targets for Fleet training and Test and Evaluation. New efforts within the program include the development and procurement of three new target types. First, a next-generation Supersonic Sea-Skimming Target (SSST) to meet the emergence of supersonic anti-ship cruise missile proliferation. Second, a new Subsonic Subscale Aerial Target (SSAT), used to replicate subsonic anti-ship cruise missiles, is being developed to replace the BQM-74. Lastly, a ballistic missile target concept is being explored to ensure that adequate training and tracking assets will be available to support Area and Theater-wide Ballistic Missile Defense (TBMD) testing, evaluation, and training.

Program Status: A new SSST will be solicited in FY 2000, with first delivery expected in FY 2004. The SSAT is in concept exploration, and first delivery is expected in FY 2005. A timeline to field ballistic missile targets to meet the requirements of the Navy Area TBMD program is under development.

Developer/Manufacturer: To be determined.

Navy Area TBMD
Area Theater Ballistic Missile Defense

 sailor on watch in Combat Information Center

Description: The Navy Area TBMD system is designed to provide for an integrated multi-mission AAW and TBMD capability. In the early stages of a conflict, Aegis ships modified for TBMD and equipped with SM-2 Block IVA missiles will play a crucial role in forced entry protection of troops, ports, and critical assets ashore (see separate program summary for Block IV A missiles). Taking advantage of the inherent flexibility, and mobility, naval forces can act independently from host nation support and sovereignty issues. Central to the evolution of Navy TBMD is the nation's $40-billion investment in the Aegis Fleet and Standard Missile. The Navy Area Program modifies the Aegis SPY-1 radar to allow detection and tracking of theater ballistic missiles. These changes are being made not by changing the total power output of the radar, but by development of special high-energy waveforms and by changing and improving signal processing. These are required to support endo-atmospheric engagement of small, high-speed TBMs with the SM-2 Block IVA missile, in order to defeat short- to medium-range TBMs during their terminal phases of flight.

Program Status: In March and July 1996, Aegis warships demonstrated the ability of the SPY phased-array radar to track real-world TBMs. On 24 January 1997, the Navy Area program conducted the first intercept of a TBM target, using a modified SM-2 Block IV missile (an early prototype of the SM-2 Block IVA Area TBMD missile) at the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, which demonstrated the functionality of the infrared seeker. The program was subsequently approved to proceed to EMD on 22 February 1997. The Navy Area TBMD Program has deployed a User Operational Evaluation System (UOES) termed "Linebacker" on two ships, USS Lake Erie (CG 70) and Port Royal (CG 73). These two ships have been crucial to the development and validation of TBMD tactics, techniques, and procedures, as well as risk reduction in the development of the final integrated Area TBMD capability. A limited number of production SM-2 Block IVA missiles are scheduled to begin delivery in FY 2003; acquisition of the Block IVA continues to be constrained by available funding. The fully integrated Area TBMD capability is scheduled for Fleet introduction in FY 2003. The ultimate objective is to deploy 79 Area TBMD-capable ships. Twenty-one Area TBMD-capable Aegis cruisers and destroyers are scheduled to be available by the end of FY 2005.

Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon, Tucson, Arizona; Lockheed Martin, Moorestown, New Jersey; and Motorola, Chandler, Arizona.

Navy Theater-Wide TBMD
Theater Ballistic Missile Defense

 warhead test

Description: Navy Theater-Wide (NTW) TBMD builds upon the Navy Area TBMD capability and includes modifications to the Aegis Weapon System and the integration of the Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP) with a hit-to-kill Kinetic Kill Vehicle (KKV) as the warhead. NTW will be capable of intercepting threat ballistic missiles in their ascent, midcourse, and descent phases of their exo-atmospheric trajectories. Coupled with the Navy Area TBMD capability, this will provide robust defense-in-depth to U.S. and allied forces, vital political and military assets, population centers, and large geographic regions against the threat of short-, medium-, and long-range ballistic missile attack. The Navy's NTW capability will pace the growing ballistic missile threat by providing a Block I capability against medium-range ballistic missiles and a follow-on Block II capability against medium- and long-range ballistic missiles. In the near term, a two-pronged developmental approach leads to:

Program Status: The NTW ADM was signed by USD (A&T) in May 1999. The ADM approved the PDRR exit criteria for entry into EMD, the acquisition strategy and program baseline for NTW Block I, and long-lead material procurement after successful threat representative testing and a SM-3 critical design review. An inert SM-3 was successfully flight tested for stage separation qualification in September 1999. Third Stage Rocket Motor and Seeker qualification will occur in mid FY 2000, and the first intercept attempt is planned for FY 2001.

Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, Seattle, Washington; Lockheed Martin, Moorestown, New Jersey; Lockheed Martin, Sunnyvale, California; Raytheon, Tucson, Arizona; and Thiokol, Promontory, Utah.

Sea Sparrow Missile/Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile

Description: The Mk 57 NATO Sea Sparrow Missile System (NSSMS) is deployed on more than 50 U.S. Navy ships and numerous NATO ships as their primary surface-to-air ship self-defense missile system. Modifications to the Sea Sparrow continue, including re-architecture, which reduces manpower requirements, increases firepower, and reduces cost of ownership through the use of COTS parts.

Sea Sparrow launch

The Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM) is the next generation of Sea Sparrow missiles, selected for the Arleigh Burke (DDG 51) Flight IIA Aegis destroyer self-defense system as well as for aircraft carriers and amphibious assault ships. ESSM is a kinematic upgrade to the improved RIM-7P missile; the existing rocket motor and control section are replaced with a larger-diameter rocket motor, a tail control section for increased responsiveness, and an integrated thrust vector control for vertical launch applications. ESSM will also have an upgraded warhead and a quick-start electronic upgrade. Enhanced ESSM kinematic performance and warhead lethality will leverage the robust RIM-7P guidance capability to provide increased operational effectiveness against high-speed maneuvering anti-ship cruise missiles at greater intercept ranges than is now possible with the RIM-7P. ESSM will be incorporated into the Aegis Weapon System for short- to medium-range missile defense. ESSM development is being pursued as an international cooperative initiative involving ten countries in the NATO Sea Sparrow Consortium.

Program Status: In-service support of NATO Sea Sparrow systems is continuing, and fleet introduction of the vertical-launched Sea Sparrow in three partner navies is complete. A Memorandum of Understanding was signed in June 1995, and ten nations signed a Production MOU for the ESSM in December 1997. A Milestone III decision is expected in FY 2002 for Full-Rate Production in FY 2003. IOC is anticipated in FY 2003, with fleet introduction on an Arleigh Burke (DDG 51) Flight IIA Aegis destroyer.

Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon, Tucson, Arizona.

RIM-66C SM-2
Standard Missile-2 Blocks II/III/III A/III B

 missile launch from ship

Description: The Standard Missile-2 (SM-2) is the Navy's primary surface-to-air theater air warfare weapon. Deployed SM-2 Block II/III/III A/III B configurations are all-weather, ship-launched, medium-range surface-to-air missiles derived from the SM-1, which is still in service with the U.S. Navy and several allies. Each of the blocks is progressively more capable against more challenging threats and in more difficult electronic countermeasures (ECM) environments. The SM-2 is launched from the Mk 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS). It employs inertial mid-course guidance with command updates from the shipboard fire control system and an ECM-resistant monopulse receiver for semi-active radar terminal homing. The SM-2 continues to evolve to counter expanding threat capabilities. Improvements in very high and very low-altitude intercepts and in particularly stressing ECM environments are being implemented through modular changes. The Block III B missile couples an infrared (IR) guidance mode capability developed in the Missile Homing Improvement Program (MHIP) with the radio frequency (RF) semi-active guidance system of the proven SM-2 Block III A. The MHIP dual-mode RF/IR guidance capability is being incorporated to counter a specific fielded and proliferating electronic warfare system in existing aircraft and cruise missile threats.

Program Status: SM-2 Block II/III/III A/III B missiles are currently deployed. FY 1995 was the first year of production for the SM-2 Block III B (mod kits). The SM-2 Block III B achieved IOC in October 1997. The resource-constrained procurement plan is limited to 1,500 Block III B missiles.

Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon, Tucson, Arizona.

RIM-67B SM-2
Standard Missile-2 Blocks IV/IV A

missile launch from ship

Description: The Navy's Standard Missile-2 (SM-2) Block IV operates in conjunction with the Aegis Weapon System and Mk 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS) to provide an improved long-range fleet area defense against aircraft and cruise missiles. The SM-2 Block IV is a kinematic improvement beyond the SM-2 Block III A/B, incorporating a thrust-vector-controlled booster, a more robust airframe, and guidance and control modifications for improved altitude/ range/cross-range coverage against high-performance, low-radar cross-section threats in an electronic countermeasures (ECM) environment. In addition to providing significant increases in ship area defense capability, the SM-2 Block IV is the developmental stepping-stone to SM-2 Block IV A, the Navy's Area Theater Ballistic Missile Defense missile. The SM-2 Block IV A upgrade adds a dual-mode radio frequency/infrared (RF/IR) sensor, an upgraded ordnance package, and autopilot-control enhancements to the SM-2 Block IV. The SM-2 Block IVA missile uses the TBMD-modified Aegis Weapon System on board Aegis cruisers and destroyers to track and engage TBMs. It enhances U.S. littoral warfare capability by allowing Aegis ships to provide TBMD for ships at sea and ground force embarkation areas ashore, without the constraints imposed by sealift or airlift or the need for host-country permission. The SM-2 Block IVA will provides the baseline for the evolutionary development of the SM-3 Navy Theater-Wide TBMD missile.

Program Status: The SM-2 Block IV has been delivered to the Fleet and IOC was met in August 1999. A System Design Review for SM-2 Block IV A was conducted in December 1993, and a Risk Reduction Flight Demonstration program began in FY 1994. An Environmental Test Round (ETR-2A) was successfully launched in summer 1996, and a Developmental Test Round (DTR-1) was launched in FY 1997 to demonstrate the imaging infrared seeker and the capability to intercept a TBM. Beginning in FY 2001, the first of 32 SM-2 Block IV A EMD missiles will be delivered to the Fleet. Acquisition of Block IVA missiles continue throughout the FYDP constrained by available resources.

Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon, Tucson, Arizona.

Rolling Airframe Missile

RAM launch from ship

Description: RAM is a high firepower, low-cost system designed to engage anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs) in the stressing electronic countermeasures (ECM) littoral conflict environment. RAM is a five-inch diameter surface-to-air missile with passive dual-mode radio frequency/infrared (RF/IR) guidance and an active-optical proximity and contact fuse. RAM has minimal shipboard control systems and does not require shipboard information after launch. Effective against a wide spectrum of existing threats, the RAM Block 1 IR upgrade will incorporate IR "all-the-way-homing" to improve performance against evolving passive and active ASCMs.

Program Status: RAM is installed in all five Tarawa (LHA 1)-class amphibious assault ships; seven Wasp (LHD 1)-class amphibious assault ships; eight Spruance (DD 963)-class destroyers; five Whidbey Island (LSD 42)-class dock landing ships; and three Harpers Ferry (LSD 49)-class dock landing ships. Block 0 missiles and launchers have completed their final production run on schedule; the missile has had successful intercepts in 119 of 123 production-acceptance and ship-qualification tests. The Block 1 missile has completed the most stressing OPEVAL ever attempted aboard the Self Defense Test Ship with 23 of 24 successful firings, and has completed Developmental/Operational Testing with IOC scheduled for FY 2000.

Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon, Tucson, Arizona; and RAMSYS, Germany.

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