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Mk 54 LHT
Lightweight Hybrid Torpedo

Photo of a US Navy SH-60 Seahawk helicopter launches a Mk 54 Torpedo

Description: The Mk 54 Lightweight Hybrid Torpedo is a modular upgrade to the lightweight torpedo inventory and is designed to counter quiet diesel-electric submarines operating in the shallow-water littoral environment. LHT combines existing torpedo hardware and software from the Mk 46, Mk 50, and Mk 48 Advanced Capability (ADCAP) programs with advanced digital COTS electronics. The resulting Mk 54 LHT offers significantly improved shallow-water counter-countermeasures capability at reduced life-cycle costs.

Program Status: MS II was achieved in FY 1996 along with an EMD contract award. A successful CDR was held in November 1999 with developmental testing beginning in July 1999. The LRIP contract was awarded in early FY 2000 and OPEVAL and Milestone III decision are scheduled for FY 2002. IOC is scheduled for FY 2003.

Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon, Mukilteo, Washington.

Naval Mines

Photo of Naval Mine being fired from aircraft
Description: The Navy's mine research and development programs are focusing on the need to improve the effectiveness of U.S. naval mines in naval and Joint expeditionary warfare scenarios. Although very capable, the current Quickstrike family of bottom mines will be enhanced significantly by the programmable Target Detecting Device (TDD) Mk 71, which provides new advanced algorithms for ship detection, classification, and localization against likely threats-e.g., quiet diesel-electric submarines, mini-subs, fast patrol boats, and air-cushioned vehicles. In the near-term future, exploratory research will pursue multi-influence (acoustic, magnetic, pressure, seismic) sensing and data fusion, standoff, wireless mine and mobile warhead control, and cooperative minefields and mobile warhead concept evaluation. Engineering development efforts include advanced mine algorithms for ship detection, classification, and localization; development of a remote control (RECO) for mines program; and a three-year joint Navy Laboratory/Industry advanced technology demonstration program for the next-generation medium depth naval sea mine. Programs have been funded to retain portions of the Mk 56 and Mk 67 Submarine-Launched Mobile Mine (SLMM) inventories. Investment is critically needed to support an advanced SLMM for employment in the Virginia (SSN-772)-class attack submarines, as the legacy Mk 67 SLMM is incompatible with the Virginia's fire-control system.
Photo of Naval Mine attached to aircraft

Program Status: The RECO program began research and development in Fiscal Year 2000 and will continue through Fiscal Year 2001. Procurement of TDD Mk 71 is scheduled to begin in FY 2001. The Office of Naval Research sponsored joint Navy/Industry medium-depth mine technology demonstration program began in FY 1999 and will conclude in FY 2001.

Developer/Manufacturer: To be determined.

Navy Area BMD
Area Ballistic Missile Defense

Sequence of three photos of an Area Ballistic Missile being launched
Description: The Navy Area BMD system is designed to provide for an integrated multi-mission AAW and BMD capability. In the early stages of a conflict, Aegis ships modified for BMD and equipped with SM-2 Block IVA missiles will play a crucial role in forced entry protection of troops, ports, and critical assets ashore (see separate program summary for Block IV A missiles). Taking advantage of the inherent flexibility and mobility, naval forces can act independently from host nation support and sovereignty issues. Central to the evolution of Navy BMD is the nation's $40-billion investment in the Aegis Fleet and Standard Missile. The Navy Area Program modifies the Aegis SPY-1 radar to allow detection and tracking of theater ballistic missiles. These changes are being made not by changing the total power output of the radar, but by development of special high-energy waveforms and by changing and improving signal processing. These are required to support endo-atmospheric engagement of small, high-speed TBMs with the SM-2 Block IVA missile, in order to defeat short- to medium-range TBMs during their terminal phases of flight.

Program Status: In March and July 1996, Aegis warships demonstrated the ability of the SPY phased-array radar to track real-world TBMs. On 24 January 1997, the Navy Area program conducted the first intercept of a TBM target, using a modified SM-2 Block IV missile (an early prototype of the SM-2 Block IVA Area TBMD missile) at the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, which demonstrated the functionality of the infrared seeker. The program was subsequently approved to proceed to EMD on 22 February 1997. The Navy Area BMD Program has deployed a User Operational Evaluation System (UOES) termed "Linebacker" on two ships, USS Lake Erie (CG-70) and Port Royal (CG-73). These two ships have been crucial to the development and validation of BMD tactics, techniques, and procedures, as well as risk reduction in the development of the final integrated Area BMD capability. On 14 December 2001, USD (ATL) terminated the Navy Area program due to cost increases and program performance. The Director of the Missile Defense Agency (MDA, formerly the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization), in close consultation with the Navy, was directed by USD (ATL) to develop courses of action to develop a Sea-Based Terminal capability by May 2002.

Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon, Tucson, Arizona; Lockheed Martin, Moorestown, New Jersey; and Motorola, Chandler, Arizona.

Navy Theater-Wide BMD
NTW Ballistic Missile Defense

Photo of a Kinetic Kill Vehicle (KKI) seen during testing

Description: Navy Theater-Wide (NTW) BMD builds upon the Navy Area BMD program and includes modifications to the Aegis Weapon System and the integration of the Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP) with a hit-to-kill Kinetic Kill Vehicle (KKV) as the warhead. NTW will be capable of intercepting threat ballistic missiles in their ascent, midcourse, and descent phases of their exo-atmospheric trajectories. Coupled with the Navy Area BMD capability, this will provide robust defense-in-depth to U.S. and allied forces, vital political and military assets, population centers, and large geographic regions against the threat of short-, medium-, and long-range ballistic missile attack, and could provide the foundation for the Navy's contribution to a national missile defense system. The Navy's NTW capability will pace the growing ballistic missile threat by providing a Block I capability against medium-range ballistic missiles and a follow-on Block II capability against medium- and long-range ballistic missiles. In the near term, a two-pronged developmental approach leads to a system-level Aegis LEAP Intercept (ALI) program through 2001 and parallel risk-reduction activities in preparation for engineering development, including:
Program Status: The Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition and Technology) signed the NTW ADM in May 1999. The ADM approved the PDRR exit criteria for entry into EMD, the acquisition strategy and program baseline for NTW Block I, and long-lead material procurement after successful threat representative testing and a SM-3 critical design review. The NTW program, however, has been restructured and is now the Sea-Based Midcourse Defense (SMD) program. Under the new program plan, the Aegis LEAP Intercept (ALI) Test Plan will continue risk reduction activities through FY 2003. The next Flight Mission 2 live-fire event took place on 25 January 2002, at the PMRF, and initial analysis shows that the test was a success. This flight mission is the last in a series of stage-by-stage validation tests of the Standard Missile-3 (SM-3) and the controlling Aegis Weapons System prior to actual intercept flight tests (FM-3, 4, 5, 6 and 7).

Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, Seattle, Washington; Lockheed Martin, Moorestown, New Jersey; Lockheed Martin, Sunnyvale, California; Raytheon, Tucson, Arizona; and Thiokol, Promontory, Utah.

Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System

Diagram of the Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System (RAMICS)

Description: The Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System (RAMICS) program is a helicopter-borne weapon system that will fire a special 20-30mm supercavitating projectile from a modified Gatling gun or cannon to neutralize surface and near-surface mines. At the heart of this system is a supercavitating projectile that is specially designed for traveling tactical distances in air and water and through a casing into the mine, causing a low-order deflagration of the mine. The gun is controlled by a fire-control system with targeting algorithims coupled with a light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system. The LIDAR locates and targets the mines, and provides aiming coordinates to the gun's fire control system to fire a burst of rounds at the mine, causing immediate and positive mine neutralization.

Program Status: In September 2000, the Office of Naval Research (ONR) successfully completed a three-year Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) comprising three demonstrations, each with an exit milestone for the RAMICS ATD. The first demonstration, which occurred during the fourth quarter Fiscal Year 1998, successfully verified potential technologies, including long-range projectile lethality against key mine types. The second demonstration, conducted in February 2000, validated complete system integration and targeting from a static test platform. The final demonstration, completed in September 2000, validated military effectiveness of the integrated RAMICS system on the AH-1W Super Cobra helicopter by successfully targeting and deflagrating a submerged MK-6 moored mine at the Aberdeen test facility. The RAMICS EMD program is fully funded in the Navy's Fiscal Year 2002 Budget and is scheduled for a Milestone B decision and award of the EMD contract in FY 2002. The RAMICS system will ultimately be hosted onboard the MH-60S helicopter as one of five developing Airborne MCM (AMCM) weapon systems organic to the carrier battle group. RAMICS IOC is scheduled for Fiscal Year 2007.

Developer/Manufacturer: ATD: Raytheon Corp, Portsmouth, Rhode Island. EMD: To be determined.

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