Airborne Weapons

Standoff Land-Attack Missile

Description: SLAM-Expanded Response (ER) is Naval Aviation's follow-on to the SLAM Stand-off Outside Area Defense (SOAD) weapon. It is a day/night, adverse-weather, precision-strike weapon with over-the-horizon range. SLAM is based on the highly successful and reliable Harpoon anti-ship missile, with a Global Positioning System-aided Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) for mid-course guidance, and a Maverick Imaging Infrared sensor and a Walleye data link for precise, "man-in-the-loop" terminal guidance. SLAM-ER, an evolutionary upgrade of SLAM, provides the Navy and Marine Corps with a major improvement in precision strike capability. A modified Tomahawk warhead improves lethality and penetration. New planar wings double the range and allow terrain-following flight. Mission planning time has been reduced to less than 30 minutes, and targeting has been improved via a "freeze frame" command that reduces pilot workload.
SLAM-ER+ will also incorporate Automatic Target Acquisition (ATA), making it an autonomous weapon and enhancing the missile's capability against small targets and targets in urban environments. ATA uses a matching algorithm to recognize both the aimpoint as well as the surrounding scene, reducing the requirement for manual pilot intervention via a data link.
Program Status: SLAM Initial Operational Capability (IOC) was in 1991. Procurements of SLAM have been 75 units each in FY 1994 and 1995. SLAM-ER has successfully completed developmental testing (with five-of-five successful missions), and has begun operational testing; IOC is planned for FY 1998. SLAM-ER+ will enter production in the fourth quarter FY 1998.
Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, St. Louis, Missouri.

High-Speed Anti-Radiation Missile

Description: A joint-service program with the Navy as lead service, HARM is the Navy's primary anti-radiation, defense-suppression, air-to-surface missile. It has been employed against targets in the 1986 Gulf of Sidra crisis and the 1991 Gulf War. HARM is designed to destroy or suppress enemy electronic emitters, especially those associated with radar sites used to direct anti-aircraft guns and surface-to-air missiles. The AGM-88B (Block III) and the AGM-88C (Block IV) are currently being upgraded to the Block IIIA and Block V, respectively. These upgrades will provide increased capability against target shutdown, blanking, and blinking. They will also add capability against complex wave forms and have improved control of the missile's geographic footprint to reduce potential damage to friendly forces in the target area. HARM Block V will also add a capability to home on jamming equipment.
Program Status: In production. FY 1992 was the last year for Navy all-up rounds. Current production comprises AGM-88C (Block IV) guidance sections and warheads to upgrade earlier AGM-88A missiles. These improvements are nearing completion with Developmental/Operational Testing (DT/OT) scheduled for FY 1998 and implementation planned for FY 2000. There is a potential for nearly 5,300 missiles to receive the Block III upgrade and 2,700 missiles to receive the Block V upgrade. In addition, a new upgrade is planned as a tri-national (Germany, Italy, and the United States) cooperative project. This international upgrade will add a precision inertial navigation suite (IMU/GPS) and new software. The IMU/GPS improvements will nearly eliminate fratricide; allow HARM to more readily attack the shutdown, blanking, or blinking target; and permit its use as a precision-guided munition (point-to-point capability). The Block VI cooperative Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) phase will occur from FY 1998 through FY 2002, with the retrofit planned for FY 2003-2007.
Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon Systems, Lewisville, Texas.

AIM-9X Sidewinder
Short-Range Air-to-Air Missile

AIM-9 Sidewinder
Description: The AIM-9X is a major modification to the AIM-9M Sidewinder. The program upgrades the missile with a focal plane array guidance control section, a highly maneuverable airframe, and signal processors that enhance its kinematics and infrared countermeasures capabilities. The missile will provide U.S. fighters with air superiority into the next century. The missile's high off-boresight capability can be coupled to a helmet-mounted cueing system, which will revolutionize the way in which air-to-air missiles are employed. The Navy's F/A-18 C/D/E/F Hornet and the Air Force's F-16 Fighting Falcon, F-15 Eagle, and F-22 aircraft are currently programmed to carry the AIM-9X.
The AIM-9M8/9 is the last of the planned upgrades to the existing, analog-based AIM-9M, and will incorporate enhanced infrared counter-countermeasures (IRCCM) features.
Program Status: The 18-month Demonstration/Validation (Dem/Val) program was completed in summer 1996. An Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) phase began in FY 1997. Initial Operational Capability (IOC) is scheduled for FY 2002.
Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon Missile Systems Company, Tucson, Arizona.

Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile

Description: The AIM-120 AMRAAM missile is deployed on the F/A-18C/D Hornet, and will be deployed on the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) aircraft. Joint U.S. Air Force and Navy procurement of AMRAAM continues, and deliveries of the AIM-120B are under way. The AIM-120C Pre-Planned Product Improvement (P3I) Program is a key factor in maintaining air superiority into the next century. This modernization plan includes clipped wings for internal carriage, a propulsion enhancement program, increased warhead lethality, and enhanced electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) capabilities through hardware and software upgrades.
Ultimately, AMRAAM will be the Department of the Navy's sole Medium/Beyond Visual Range (BVR) missile. As part of the continuing "neckdown strategy," the radar-guided AIM-54C Phoenix and AIM-7M Sparrow are out of production, and no further software or hardware improvements are planned. Nevertheless, F-14 Tomcats armed with the AIM-54C and AIM-7M will remain effective air superiority fighters into the next century, and the AIM-54/AIM-7 inventory will support the Tomcat throughout its remaining service life.
Program Status: Deliveries of the reprogrammable AIM-120B began reaching the Fleet in April 1995, followed by the AIM-120C in 1996. The joint AMRAAM procurement and an aggressive P3I program are continuing. The Navy has requested 115 AMRAAMs in FY 1999.
Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon Missile Systems Company, Tucson, Arizona.

Joint Direct Attack Munition

Joint Direct Attack Munition
Description: The Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) currently under development is a multi-service effort to develop a strap-on, Global Positioning Sytstem-aided Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) guidance kit that will improve the accuracy of general-purpose bombs in all weather conditions. JDAM will also allow a single aircraft to attack multiple targets from a single release point.
Program Status: The Air Force is the lead service for JDAM. Low-Rate Initial Production (LRIP) began in FY 1997, and Milestone III is planned for FY 1998. The delivery of 937 strap-on kits for 1,000 to 2,000 pound bombs will begin in FY 1998 and end the next year. The Navy has requested funding for 898 JDAMs in FY 1999.
Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, St. Louis, Missouri.

Joint Standoff Weapon

Joint Standoff Weapon
Description: A new family of Stand-off Outside Area Defense (SOAD) weapons will be introduced to the Fleet beginning in FY 1998 and 1999 with the Joint Stand-Off Weapon (JSOW). JSOW is a key program that will replace five types of the older air-to-ground weapons currently in the naval inventory. It is a joint Navy-Air Force weapon development program, with Navy as the lead service. It will provide a family of precision-guided weapons that will allow naval aircraft to attack targets at increased stand-off distances, greatly increasing aircraft survivability. JSOW will be usable in adverse weather conditions, and, like the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM), will give aircrews the ability to attack multiple targets in a single sortie. The JSOW family uses a common weapon body for all variants. The baseline variant carries BLU-97 combined-effect bomblets for use against area targets. To provide anti-armor capability, a follow-on version will carry the BLU-108 payload derived from the Sensor Fused Weapon (SFW). A third variant is being addressed that would carry a unitary warhead to provide blast-fragmentation capability.
Program Status: The test program was completed in June 1997 and Carrier Air Wing 9 deployed with six experimental JSOWs in fall 1997. Initial Operational Capability (IOC) is scheduled for FY 1998. The Navy has requested 325 JSOWs in FY 1999.
Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon Systems, Lewisville, Texas.

Surface Weapons / Systems

Advanced Integrated Electronic Warfare System

Description: The Advanced Integrated Electronic Warfare System (AIEWS) is the Navy's next-generation shipboard electronic warfare (EW) system. AIEWS will incorporate an open architecture that will allow modern technology insertion and facilitate use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) systems and Non-Developmental Items (NDI). The system is designed for layered and coordinated countermeasures in the littoral operational environment, with special emphasis on the full integration of all soft-kill elements into the ship's anti-air warfare systems. AIEWS will be developed in two increments. Increment I will include the open system architecture, advanced Electronic Support (ES) that includes Precision Electronic Support Measures (PESM) and Specific Emitter Identification (SEI), combat system integration, introduction of an advanced display system, and integration of the Nulka self-defense decoy system. Increment I will also provide increased tactical awareness and earlier threat detection, and will support combat identification with its SEI capability. Increment II will include installation of advanced on-board radio-frequency and infrared countermeasures. AIEWS will be forward- and back-fit into Aegis cruiser and destroyers, LPD-17 and other amphibious ship classes, aircraft carriers, and the DD-21.
Program Status: AIEWS received additional funding in FY 1996 for risk reduction and engineering acceleration. The Increment I (Advanced ES) contract was awarded in early FY 1998. AIEWS Initial Operational Capability (IOC) is expected in 2002.
Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin Team, Bethesda, Maryland.

BGM-109 Tomahawk
Land-Attack Cruise Missile

Description: Tomahawk is the premier, deep-strike, long-range, subsonic, all-weather, land-attack cruise missile deployed on ships and submarines. The Tomahawk Land-Attack Missile-C (TLAM-C, BGM-109C) is armed with a unitary conventional warhead, while the TLAM/D (BGM-109D) variant is armed with submunitions. TLAM has inertial and terrain contour matching (TERCOM) guidance, which compares a stored digital map with actual terrain.
TLAM Block III complements TERCOM with a Global Positioning System (GPS) capability. The follow-on to the Tomahawk Block III is the Tomahawk Block IV or Tomahawk Baseline Improvement Program (TBIP). Block IV offers updated features to Block III, including a tightly coupled autonomous navigation system combining a jam-resistant GPS receiver, inertial navigation system, two-way satellite data link, increased computer capacity, flexible targeting (secondary target routing in flight), and the ability to load multiple missions. Baseline IV's increased accuracy improves lethality against wider target sets, reduces system response time, and obtains mission status and Battle Damage Indication (BDI). Tomahawk's combat-proven capabilities have been underscored by more than 400 missiles expended in five separate campaigns and contingencies from January 1991 through September 1996.
During FY 1998, the Navy plans to transition to Tactical Tomahawk, a program that preserves long-range precision-strike capability while significantly increasing Tomahawk's responsiveness and flexibility. System improvements include inflight retargeting; battlefield loiter capability; a missile-mounted camera that gives a snapshot of the battlefield for BDI, Battle Damage Assessment (BDA), and target identification; on-board GPS mission planning; and the architecture to allow for future advances and alternative payloads.
Program Status: Two single-source contracts were awarded to Hughes (now Raytheon) Missile Systems in September 1994, which include continued Block III production and maintenance, and Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) for Block IV. If approved, Tactical Tomahawk will replace the Block IV program and provide significant improvement at a substantially lower cost. Initial Operational Capability (IOC) is planned for FY 2002.
Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon Missile Systems Company, Tucson, Arizona.

Cooperative Engagement Capability

submarine underway
Description: The Navy's Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) significantly improves battle force Anti-Air Warfare (AAW) and Theater Air Defense (TAD) capability by integrating the sensor data of each ship and aircraft into a single, real-time, fire-control quality composite track picture. CEC also interfaces the weapons capabilities of each CEC-equipped ship in the battle group to provide an integrated engagement capability. By simultaneously distributing sensor data on airborne threats to each ship within a battle group, CEC extends the range at which a ship can engage hostile missiles to well beyond the radar horizon, significantly improving area, local, and self-defense capabilities. Operating under the direction of a designated commander, CEC will enable a battle group or joint task force to act as a single defensive combat system. CEC will provide the Fleet with the defensive flexibility required to confront the evolving threat of anti-ship cruise missiles and theater ballistic missiles.
Program Status: CEC has been installed on three ships of the Eisenhower (CVN-69) Battle Group and the Wasp (LHD-1). In January 1996 CEC played a key role in the "Mountain Top" Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) in which over-the-horizon engagement of cruise missiles was demonstrated for the first time. Initial Operational Capability (IOC) for the system was declared in FY 1996 in accordance with congressional direction. The Wasp (LHD-1), Anzio (CG-68), CEC-equipped P-3s, Aegis Combat Systems Center, Wallops Island, and Naval Surface Warfare Center Port Hueneme Division/Dam Neck, participated in the CEC IOC and Evaluation (DT-IIB and OT-IIAI) off the Virginia coast during August 1997.
Low-Rate Initial Production (LRIP) of CEC began in January 1998. A contract award is scheduled for 1998 to meet targeted ship installation schedules. LRIP will include nine total units (two new construction, five backfit shipsets, and two land-based sites), and coincides with the funding of seven additional units in the FY 1998-2003 Future Years Defense Plan (FYDP). Ten additional units are being developed during FY 1998 to support testing phases DT-IIB/OT-11A and Techeval (OT-IIC), Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (OPEVAL OT-IIA2), and airborne/joint service integration analyses/testing. The Navy will field 11 additional CEC systems by mid-1998. The systems will be fitted to four E-2C Hawkeye airborne early warning (AEW) aircraft and four ships - John F. Kennedy (CV-67), Wasp, Hue City (CG-66), and Vicksburg (CG-69).
Final Operational Evaluation is scheduled for late summer 1998, and the report of the Commander, Operational Test and Evaluation Force (OPTEVFOR) is anticipated in late 1998. The Beyond Low-Rate Intial Production (BLRIP) report of the Under Secretary of Defense for Development, Operational Test and Evaluation (USD DOT&E) is scheduled for early 1999.
Developer/Manufacturer: Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland; and Raytheon Systems, St. Petersburg, Florida.

CIWS Mk 15
Phalanx Close-In Weapon System

Phalanx Close-In Weapon System
Description: The Mk 15 Phalanx Close-In Weapon System (CIWS) is an integral element of the Ship Self-Defense System (SSDS) and the anti-air warfare defense-in-depth concept. CIWS is a radar-controlled, rapid-fire gun designed as a fast-reaction terminal defense weapon against anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs) penetrating outer fleet defenses. CIWS is capable of firing 4,500 rounds of penetrator ammunition per minute and is integrated with a search-and-track radar and weapon-control unit. A unique closed-loop fire control system that tracks both the incoming target and the stream of outgoing projectiles gives CIWS the capability to correct its aim to hit fast-moving and maneuvering targets. Enhancements to existing CIWS capabilities include the new High Order Language Computer (HOLC), which improves Phalanx performance against high-speed maneuvering targets. The Phalanx Surface Mode (PSUM) which uses electro-optical systems to provide day/night detection capability and enables the CIWS to engage small surface targets, slow-moving air targets, and helicopters has been developed and is scheduled for operational testing in FY 1998.
Program Status: More than 400 CIWS systems have been deployed at sea on U.S. warships since the system was first tested in August 1973. Development and Operational Testing (DT/OT) of the HOLC fire-control system was completed in FY 1996, using the Self Defense Test Ship. Testing of the Phalanx Surface Mode capability continues in FY 1998.
Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon Missile Systems Company, Tucson, Arizona.

Extended-Range Guided Munition

Extended-Range Guided Munition
Description: The Extended-Range Guided Munition (ERGM) is a 12-caliber rocket-assisted projectile carrying a 4-caliber submunition payload. The projectile is launched from a modified 5-inch/62-caliber Mk 45 gun mount and is guided to its target using both Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial guidance. ERGM's range and precise GPS targeting capability will improve Naval Surface Fire Support (NSFS) and provide near-term gunfire support for amphibious operations, suppression and destruction of hostile anti-shipping weapons and air defense systems, and naval gunfire support for the joint land battle.
Program Status: Milestone I/II was approved in July 1996 to enter Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD). Low-Rate Initial Production (LRIP) of 500 rounds will begin in 1999.
Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon Missile Systems Division, Bedford, Massachusetts; and Raytheon Systems, Lewisville, Texas.

Missile Homing Improvement Program

Description: Improvements are programmed for the Standard (SM-2), Sea Sparrow (RIM-7), and Sparrow (AIM-7) missiles to integrate a dual-mode seeker capable of defeating a specific jamming capability present in former Soviet export aircraft and cruise missiles.
Program Status: Conversions of SM-2 Block III missiles commenced in FY 1995; 120 SM-2 Mod kits were funded in FY 1996. Successful operational evaluation of SM-2 Block IIIB in spring 1996 led to a full-rate production decision in July 1996. Procurement of Sparrow and Sea Sparrow MHIP kits will commence in FY 1999. Procurement of new SM-2 Block IIIB all-up rounds began in FY 1997.
Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon Missile Systems Company, Tucson, Arizona.

Ship Self-Defense System

Description: Mk 1 SSDS provides ships with an integrated self defense capability to defend against anti-ship missile and aircraft attack in the cluttered littoral conflict environment, in which reaction times are exceedingly short. SSDS is a physically distributed, open-architecture system that comprises the crucial integration and control segment of the Quick Reaction Combat Capability (QRCC). SSDS integrates existing and programmed Anti-Air Warfare (AAW) stand-alone, manual systems to provide automated, quick-reaction, high firepower, and multi-target self-defense engagement capability. SSDS coordinates existing sensor information, provides threat identification and evaluation, assesses own-ship defense readiness, and recommends optimal defensive tactical responses.
Program Status: Developmental and operational testing completed in September 1997 on the USS Ashland (LSD-48). Full rate production was approved in December 1997.
Developer/Manufacturer: Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland; and Raytheon Systems, Sudbury, Massachusetts.

Mk 54 LHT
Lightweight Hybrid Torpedo

Description: The Mk 54 Lightweight Hybrid Torpedo is a modular upgrade to the lightweight torpedo inventory and is designed to counter quiet diesel-electric submarines operating in shallow water. LHT combines existing torpedo hardware and software from the Mk 46, Mk 50, and Advanced Capability (ADCAP) programs with advanced digital Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) electronics. The resulting Mk 54 LHT offers significantly improved shallow-water counter-countermeasures capability at reduced life-cycle costs.
Program Status: Delivery of Engineering Development Models is planned for FY 1998, and Initial Operational Capability (IOC) is expected in FY 2003.
Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon Systems Company, Mukilteo Washington.

Navy Area TBMD
Area Theater Ballistic Missile Defense

Description: The Area TBMD Program will provide the capability to defend naval forces at sea and in the littorals, and extend that protection to forces and facilities on shore; Area TBMD provides for engagement of Theater Ballistic Missiles (TBMs) in the terminal phase of flight. The Navy's Area TBMD Program is based on evolving the capabilities and investments in the Aegis Weapon System and takes advantage of the solid foundation of Aegis ships, trained crews, and existing industrial foundations to develop a capability to defeat TBMs. While the threat from theater-range ballistic missiles is increasing, near-term Area TBMD from ships at sea - taking advantage of the inherent flexibility and mobility of naval forces without reliance on host nation permission or support - is critical for safe entry of our forces into overseas ports and airfields, and is the lynch-pin of America's increasingly continental U.S. (CONUS)-based national security and national military strategies. The United States has a significant investment in its fleet of highly capable Aegis cruisers and destroyers that are routinely deployed around the world, and it is this investment that provides the foundation for sea-based Area TBMD.
Program Status: In March and July 1996, Aegis warships demonstrated the ability of the SPY phased-array radar to track "real world" TBMs. On 24 January 1997, the Navy Area program conducted the first intercept of a TBM target, using a modified SM-2 Block IV missile (an early prototype of the SM-2 Block IVA Area TBMD missile) at the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, which demonstrated the functionality of the infrared seeker. The program was subsequently approved to proceed to Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) at a Milestone II Defense Acquisition Board (DAB) on 22 February 1997. The Navy Area TBMD System will field a User Operational Evaluation System (UOES) termed "Linebacker" capability on two ships - the USS Lake Erie (CG-70) and Port Royal (CG-73) - in FY 1999.
Developer/Manufacturer: Standard Missile Company, McLean, Virginia.; Raytheon Missile Systems Company, Tucson, Arizona; and Motorola, Chandler, Arizona.

Navy Theater-Wide
TBMD Theater Ballistic Missile Defense

missile launch
Description: Navy Theater-Wide (NTW) TBMD builds upon the Navy Area TBMD capability and consists of modifications to the Aegis Weapon System, the integration of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO)-developed Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP) and a third-stage rocket motor into the existing Standard SM-2 Block IV Missile. The NTW system will be capable of intercepting threat ballistic missiles in their ascent, midcourse, and descent phases of their exo-atmospheric trajectory. This will provide defense-in-depth to U.S. and allied forces, vital political and military assets, population centers, and large geographic regions from the threat of ballistic missile attack. The Navy's NTW capability will pace the growing ballistic missile threat by providing a Block I capability against medium-range ballistic missiles, and a follow-on Block II capability against medium- and long-range ballistic missiles. In the near term, a two-pronged developmental approach leads to:
Program Status: On 16 May 1997, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology approved recommendations of the NTW Overarching Integrated Product Team for the program to proceed toward the next milestone and entry into the Acquisition Life Cycle in the Preliminary Design and Risk Reduction (PD&RR) phase, and to provide Milestone I documentation to support a Defense Acquisition Board (DAB) Review planned for the third quarter FY 1998. In September 1997, Phase II of the Navy TBMD Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis (COEA) recommended the SM-3 LEAP as the interceptor of choice. An initial Aegis LEAP intercept with a prototype SM-3 is planned for 1999. The current program plan calls for deployment of an initial NTW Block I capability in 2006 and more robust Block II capability in 2010. Both the Navy Area and NTW programs are Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty compliant.
Developer/Manufacturer: Standard Missile Company, McLean, Virginia; Raytheon Missile Systems Company, Tucson, Arizona; Thiokol, Promontory, Utah; Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space, Sunnyvale, California; and Boeing, Seattle, Washington.

Decoy System

Nulka Decoy System
Description: Nulka is an active, off-board, ship-launched decoy being developed in cooperation with Australia to counter a wide spectrum of present and future radar-guided anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs) assessed to have passive decoy rejection and active angular deflection electronic countermeasures (ECM) rejection capabilities. The Nulka decoy employs a broadband radio frequency repeater mounted atop a hovering rocket platform. After launch, the Nulka decoy radiates a large, ship-like radar cross section while flying a trajectory that seduces and decoys incoming ASCMs away from their intended targets. Australia is developing the hovering rocket, launcher, and launcher interface unit. The Navy is upgrading Nulka with an improved payload to reduce cost and modifications to the fire control system to reduce the system's overall weight. The existing Mk 36 Decoy Launching System is being modified to support Nulka decoys.
Program Status: Development is scheduled to proceed through Milestone III for full-rate production in FY 1998 and installation on most U.S. and Australian surface warships and amphibious ships beginning in FY 1999.
Developer/Manufacturer: AWA, Australia; and Sippican, Marion, Massachusetts.

Rapid Anti-Ship Cruise Missile
Integrated Defense System

Description: RAIDS is a tactical decision aid for the commanding officer/tactical action officer that provides automatic display of anti-ship cruise missile threats, depicts active and passive sensor displays, and shows the status of existing terminal self-defense systems. A multiple microprocessor-based system, RAIDS considers threat capabilities, environmental data, own-ship characteristics, and approved tactical doctrine in determining appropriate recommendations. It is an interim system in the approved incremental acquisition of the Mk 1 Ship Self-Defense System.
Program Status: Approval for production was received in September 1993, and fleet introduction commenced in 1995 for Spruance (DD-963)-class destroyers. By the end of FY 1996, RAIDS was installed in 17 Spruance-class ships. A successful Operational Assessment was conducted in the USS Clark (FFG-11) in January 1995, and approval for production for Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG-7)-class guided missile frigates was granted in July 1995. Operational Testing was completed in July 1996, and FFG-7 installation is scheduled to begin in FY 1998.
Developer/Manufacturer: CODAR, Longmont, Colorado.

Sea Sparrow Missile/Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile

Sea Sparrow
Description: The Mk 57 NATO Sea Sparrow Missile System (NSSMS) is deployed on more than 50 U.S. Navy ships and numerous NATO ships as their primary surface-to-air ship self-defense missile system. Modifications to the Sea Sparrow will continue, including the capability modernization program, which reduces manpower requirements; increases system reliability, availability, and survivability; increases firepower; and reduces cost of ownership through the use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) parts.
The Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM) is the next generation of Sea Sparrow missiles, selected for the Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) Flight IIA Aegis destroyer point defense system as well as for aircraft carriers and amphibious assault ships. ESSM is a kinematic upgrade to the improved RIM-7P missile; the existing rocket motor and control section will be replaced with a larger-diameter rocket motor, a tail control section for increased responsiveness, and an integrated thrust vector control for vertical launch applications. ESSM will also have an upgraded ordnance package and a quick-start electronic upgrade. Enhanced ESSM kinematic performance and warhead lethality will leverage the robust RIM-7P guidance capability to provide increased operational effectiveness against high-speed maneuvering anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs) at greater intercept ranges. The ESSM will be incorporated into the Aegis Weapon System for short- to medium-range missile defense. ESSM development is being pursued as an international cooperative initiative involving ten countries in the NATO Sea Sparrow Consortium.
Program Status: In-service support of NATO Sea Sparrow systems is continuing, and fleet introduction of the vertical launch Sea Sparrow in three partner navies is complete. One hundred seventy-five retrofits to the 7P configuration were procured in FY 1997. Milestone III/I Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) approval for ESSM was received in November 1994. Ten nations signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for ESSM in May 1997. A Milestone III decision is expected in FY 1999 and Initial Operational Capability (IOC) is anticipated in FY 2000. ESSM is scheduled to enter service in FY 2001.
Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon Missile Systems Company, Tucson, Arizona.

RIM-66C SM-2
Standard Missile-2

Standard Missile-2
Description: The Standard Missile-2 (SM-2) is the Navy's primary surface-to-air theater air warfare weapon. Deployed SM-2 Block II/III/IIIA/IIIB configurations are all-weather, ship-launched, medium-range surface-to-air missiles derived from the SM-1, which is still in service with both U.S. and allies' fleets. Each of the blocks is progressively more capable against more challenging threats and in more challenging electronic countermeasures (ECM) environments. The SM-2 is launched from the Mk 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS) and the Mk 13 and Mk 26 Guided Missile Launching Systems (GMLS). It employs inertial mid-course guidance with command updates from the shipboard fire control system and an ECM-resistant monopulse receiver for semiactive radar terminal homing. SM-2 continues to evolve to counter expanding threat capabilities. Improvements in very high and very low-altitude intercepts and in particularly stressing ECM environments are being implemented through modular changes. The Block IIIB missile incorporates an infrared (IR) guidance mode capability developed in the Missile Homing Improvement Program (MHIP) with the radio frequency (RF) semiactive guidance system of the proven SM-2 Block IIIA. The MHIP dual-mode RF/IR guidance capability is being incorporated to counter a specific fielded and proliferating electronic warfare systems in existing aircraft and cruise missile threats.
Program Status: SM-2 Block II/III/IIIA/IIIB missiles are currently deployed. FY 1995 was the first year of production for the SM-2 Block IIIB (mod kits). The first successful Block IIIB was fired on 21 October 1994 at White Sands Missile Range. Procurement of more than 500 missiles is planned through FY 2003.
Developer/Manufacturer: Standard Missile Company, McLean, Virginia.

RIM-67B SM-2
Standard Missile-2
Blocks IV, IVA

Standard Missile-2 (SM-2)
Description: The Navy's Standard Missile-2 (SM-2) Block IV will operate in conjunction with the Aegis Weapon System and Mk 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS) to provide an improved long-range fleet area defense against aircraft and cruise missiles. The SM-2 Block IV is a kinematic improvement beyond the SM-2 Block III, incorporating a thrust-vector-controlled booster, a more robust airframe, and guidance and control modifications for improved altitude/range/cross-range coverage against high-performance, low radar cross-section threats in a stressing electronic countermeasures (ECM) environment. In addition to providing significant increases in ship area defense capability, the SM-2 Block IV is the developmental stepping-stone to SM-2 Block IVA, the Navy's Area Theater Ballistic Missile Defense (TBMD) missile. The SM-2 Block IVA upgrade adds a dual-mode radio frequency/infrared (RF/IR) sensor, an upgraded ordnance package, and autopilot/control enhancements to the SM-2 Block IV. The SM-2 Block IVA missile uses the TBMD-modified Aegis Weapon System on board Aegis cruisers and destroyers to track and engage TBMs, enhancing U.S. littoral warfare capability by allowing Aegis ships to provide TBMD for ships at sea and ground force embarkation areas ashore, without the constraints imposed by sealift or airlift or the need for host-country permission. The SM-2 Block IVA will provide the baseline for the evolutionary development of the SM-3 Navy Theater Wide TBMD missile.
Program Status: Developmental and initial operational testing has been completed on SM-2 Block IV, and the Defense Acquisition Board (DAB) approved low-rate production. A System Design Review for SM-2 Block IVA was conducted in December 1993 and a Risk Reduction Flight Demonstration (RRFD) program was initiated in FY 1994. An Environmental Test Round (ETR-2A) was successfully launched in summer 1996, and a Developmental Test Round (DTR-1) was launched in FY 1997 to demonstrate the imaging infrared seeker and the capability to intercept a TBM. Procurement of more than 300 missiles is planned through FY 2003.
Developer/Manufacturer: Standard Missile Company, McLean, Virginia.

Rolling Airframe Missile

Rolling Airframe Missile
Description: RAM is a high firepower, low-cost system designed to engage anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs) in the stressing electronic countermeasures (ECM) littoral conflict environment. RAM is a 5-inch diameter surface-to-air missile with passive dual-mode radio frequency/infrared (RF/IR) guidance and an active-optical proximity and contact fuse. RAM has minimal shipboard control systems and does not require shipboard information after launch. Effective against a wide spectrum of existing threats, the RAM Block 1 IR upgrade will incorporate IR "all-the-way-homing" to improve performance against evolving passive and active ASCMs.
Program Status: RAM is installed in all five Tarawa (LHA-1)-class amphibious assault ships; Wasp-class LHD-1, 3, 5, and 6 amphibious assault ships. Block 0 missiles and launchers are in their final production run and are on schedule; the missile has had successful intercepts in 95 of 99 production-acceptance and ship-qualification tests. The Block 1 missile program has had three successful Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) test firings, which resulted in a favorable Operational Assessment and approval for Low-Rate Initial Production (LRIP). Milestone III is scheduled for FY 1998, to be followed by Initial Operational Capability (IOC) in FY 1999. Congress approved 100 missiles in FY 1998, and the Navy has requested funding for 100 missiles in FY 1999.
Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon Missile Systems Company, Tucson, Arizona; and RAMSYS, Germany.

Electronic Warfare System

SLQ-32A Electronic Warfare System
Description: An integral component and an effective asset in the Navy's Ship Self Defense System (SSDS), the AN/SLQ-32A Electronic Warfare System comprises three modular versions with increasing levels of complexity. The SLQ-32A (V)1 provides warning, identification, and direction-finding of incoming anti-ship cruise missile (ASCM) terminal-guidance radars. The (V)2 adds early warning, identification, and direction-finding against the targeting radars associated with these ASCMs. The (V)3 adds a jamming capability against the targeting and ASCM terminal guidance radars. Variations of these three SLQ-32A systems have been installed on aircraft carriers (CV/CVNs) - the V(4) - and Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG-7)-class guided missile frigates - the V(5).
Program Status: More than 200 SLQ-32 systems are installed on U.S. ships as of FY 1998. The system will eventually be replaced, but it is expected to remain in the Fleet through 2015.
Developer/Manufacturer: Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.; Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, Virginia, and Crane, Indiana; and Raytheon, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Vertical Gun for Advanced Ships

Vertical Gun for Advanced Ships
Description: VGAS is a 155mm Gun Weapon System being planned for DD-21 Maritime Dominance Destroyers to provide volume and sustainable fires in support of a land attack warfare campaign. VGAS is a fully integrated gun weapon system (GWS), which includes dual 52 caliber 155mm guns in a fixed vertical orientation, fully integrated gun and fire control systems, and test and fault isolation functions. Each gun will be capable of independently firing up to 12 rounds per minute from an automated magazine storing as many as 1,500 rounds. The VGAS program also includes development of the 155mm Extended Range Guided Munition (ERGM; see separate program summary). VGAS will be designed to the size of a 64-cell Mk 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS) launcher and will meet the reduced manning and low radar signature requirements of DD-21.
Program Status: The program is scheduled for an FY 1999 start, delivering a prototype gun in FY 2002 for extensive land-based testing. First delivery to DD-21 is scheduled for FY 2006.
Developer/Manufacturer: To be determined.

Submarine Weapons

Mk 48 ADCAP Torpedo
Advanced Capability Heavyweight Torpedo

Mk 48 ADCAP Torpedo
Description: The Mk 48 torpedo is carried by all U.S. attack and ballistic missile submarines (SSN and SSBNs). The improved version, the Mk 48 ADCAP, is carried by the Los Angeles (SSN-688)-class, Sturgeon (SSN-637)-class, and Ohio (SSBN-726)-class submarines; it will also arm the three Seawolf (SSN-21)-class submarines and the New Attack Submarine (NSSN). The Mk 48 ADCAP's upgraded guidance and propulsion systems enable U.S. submarines to attack hostile surface ships or submarines in the presence of torpedo countermeasures and in adverse environmental conditions, including shallow water. A modification to the ADCAP (MOD ADCAP) increases guidance and control speed and memory, and significantly reduces radiated noise. Both torpedoes combat fast, deep-diving nuclear submarines and high-performance surface ships. The ADCAP is also effective against the diesel submarine (SSK) threat in the littoral environment, and the MOD ADCAP will improve the torpedo's performance against all threats in all operational environments. Both variants can operate with or without wire guidance using active and/or passive homing, and can execute preprogrammed search and attack procedures.
A follow-on hardware upgrade, known as Common Broadband Advanced Sonar System (CBASS), begins development in FY 1998. CBASS will further enhance the torpedo's performance against modern SSNs and SSKs employing advanced countermeasures.
Program Status: MOD ADCAP upgrade production began in FY 1995. The following current MOD upgrades are scheduled: 151 torpedoes upgraded in FY 1998; 108 torpedoes upgraded each year for FY 1999-2002; and 80 torpedoes upgraded in FY 2003. CBASS MODs are scheduled for implementation on 25 torpedoes in FY 2002 and 63 torpedoes in FY 2003.
Developer/Manufacturer: ADCAP MOD: Northrop Grumman Marine Systems, Sunnyvale, California. CBASS: to be determined.

UGM-133A Trident II/D5
Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile

Trident II/D5 Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile
Description: The Trident II/D5 is the sixth generation of the U.S Navy's Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) program, which started in 1955. The D5 is a three-stage, solid-propellant, inertial-guided submarine-launched ballistic missile with a range greater than 4,000 nautical miles and accuracies measured in hundreds of feet. The Ohio (SSBN-726)-class submarines each carry 24 Trident missiles Trident I/C4 on the first eight ships stationed in Bangor, Washington, and Trident II/D5 on the ten ships stationed in Kings Bay, Georgia. Beginning in FY 2000, four of the C4 ships will be converted to carry the Trident II/D5 missile. Each Trident II missile is capable of carrying 12 W76 Multiple Independently Targeted Reentry Vehicles (MIRVs), although in operation these missiles have been limited to eight MIRV warheads. The Navy continues to address future deterrence requirements against weapons of mass destruction, and the Trident II/D5 will ensure that the United States has a modern, survivable strategic deterrent.
Program Status: Production of 84 D5 missiles remains to reach the Nuclear Posture Review inventory objective of 434 missiles for 14 Trident II/D5 SSBNs in two oceans. Procurement of 5-12 missiles per year is planned through FY 2005.
Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space, Sunnyvale, California.

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