Airborne Sensors

F/A-18 Hornet Radar Upgrade

hornet radar upgrade
Description: The two phases of the F/A-18 AN/APG-65 radar upgrade will continue through the end of this century. The Phase I upgrade will enhance performance in a hostile electronic countermeasures environment, thereby expanding all-weather attack and multimode function flexibility and increasing growth potential of the radar. Phase II will provide reconnaissance capability and air-to-ground targeting through the use of synthetic aperture radar technology and the development of improved hardware and software.
Program Status: Phase I is currently in Low-Rate Initial Production (LRIP), and Phase II LRIP is planned for FY 1998.
Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, St. Louis, Missouri; and Hughes Aircraft, Culver City, California.

Advanced Tactical Air Reconnaissance System

Advanced Tactical Air Reconnaissance System
Description: ATARS is a near-real-time, digital, high-resolution tactical reconnaissance system for the reconnaissance-configured F/A-18D. Combined with the synthetic aperture capability of the AN/APG-73 radar, ATARS will provide the F/A-18D with a reconnaissance package capable of day/night, through-the-weather imaging for both direct overflight and long-range standoff. The Joint Services Imagery Processing System (JSIPS) and the Marine Corps Tactical Exploitation Group (TEG) will provide image processing and exploitation.
Program Status: ATARS has been approved for Milestone II, Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) phase. Initial Operational Capability (IOC) is scheduled for the second quarter FY 1999. A total of 31 ATARS suites are planned.
Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, St. Louis, Missouri; Fairchild, Syosett, New York; Computing Devices, Hastings, United Kingdom; and Lockheed Martin Infrared and Imaging Systems, Lexington, Massachusetts.

Surface Sensors

Combat DF
Combat Direction Finding

Combat Direction Finding
Description: Combat DF Block 0 (AN/SRS-1) is an electronic support, signal acquisition, and direction-finding system providing warship commanders near-real-time indications and warning, situational awareness, and cueing information for targeting systems. Combat DF greatly improves on existing "Outboard" system technology by providing greater flexibility against a wider range of threat signals and increased reliability at lower cost through use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) workstations. The Block 1 (SRS-1A) system will incorporate the Automated Digital Acquisition Subsystem (ADAS) upgrade enabling exploitation of unconventional and low-probability-of-intercept (LPI) signals.
Program Status: Block 0 Full-Rate Production (FRP) began in the third quarter FY 1993. Block 0 is currently being installed during new ship construction in Wasp (LHD-1) and Arleigh Burke Flight II (DDG-72 and follow-on)-class ships. Installation is complete in LHD-1 through LHD-4 and will continue on LHD-5 and DDG-72. Block 1 FRP approval was received in FY 1995, and back-fit/installation on LHDs and DDG ships began in FY 1997. The Block 1 system will eventually outfit seven LHDs, 35 DDG-51 Flight IIs, and three shore sites.
Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin, Nashua, New Hampshire.

IPDS CBR Defense
Improved Point Detector System

Description: The IPDS will extend the CBR (Chemical, Biological, Radiological) capabilities of the Chemical Agent Detector installed on Navy ships by adding an automatic nerve and blister agent vapor detector and alarm system. A key feature is an expandable agent recognition library with the ability to exclude interference and reduce false alarms.
Program Status: The program achieved Milestone III in July 1995, and the production contract was awarded in October 1996. Production deliveries are scheduled to begin in April 1998, with an inventory objective of 235 systems. Funding for this program was shifted from Navy to Department of Defense accounts.
Developer/Manufacturer: Powertronic Systems, Inc., New Orleans, Louisiana.

Infrared Search and Track

Infrared Search and Track
Description: The Infrared Search and Track (IRST) system will provide automatic surveillance, detection, tracking, and declaration of low-altitude, anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs) at tactically significant ranges to support ship self-defense. IRST complements existing self-defense systems, and improves combat system detection capability during conditions that degrade radar performance (e.g., jamming, environmental ducting). The system provides passive warning against low-radar cross-section ASCMs and aircraft by detecting infrared radiation and target azimuth/elevation data. It then transmits it to the ship's combat system, with auto-acquisition of the target upon cueing by other sensors.
Program Status: The contract was awarded for production of an FY 1998 demonstration model. At-sea demonstrations will complete in FY 1999.
Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin, Orlando, Florida; and Raytheon Systems, El Segundo, California.

Shipboard Automatic Liquid Agent Detector

Description: SALAD is an automatic, exterior liquid CBR (Chemical, Biological, Radiological) agent detection and monitoring system that will detect and alarm in the presence of liquid nerve and blister agents. SALAD consists of a detector unit that uses chemically treated paper, optical scanners, a central processing control unit, and automatic alarms in key shipboard locations. This device replaces manual methods that could expose personnel to the hazards of liquid chemical agents.
Program Status: SALAD began Operational Test and Evaluation in April 1998. A Milestone III decision is projected for fall 1998, with an inventory objective of 255 systems. Research, development, and acquisition funding for this program was shifted from Navy to Department of Defense accounts.
Developer/Manufacturer: To be determined.

Radar Improvement Program

Description: This program uses Commercial Off-The-Shelf systems and Non-Developmental Items (COTS/NDI) to improve the performance of the AN/SPQ-9 Radar in the Mk 86 Gun Fire Control System (GFCS), which will be integrated into the Mk 1 Ship Self Defense System (SSDS). It comprises a variety of upgrades for search radar equipment to meet the evolving threat, and will provide anti-ship missile defense capability for surface combatants. The upgraded SPQ-9B - which uses a high-resolution, track-while-scan, X-band, pulse-Doppler radar - will enable detection and establishing firm track ranges on subsonic and supersonic sea-skimming missiles, and will maximize the use of existing in-service equipment and COTS/NDI items, with no degradation of basic Mk 86 GFCS operation.
Program Status: The design, fabrication, and testing of an Advanced Demonstration Model (ADM) of the SPQ-9B by the Naval Research Laboratory have eliminated all serious technical risk. Initial performance testing of the ADM was completed at Wallops Island prior to a successful operational assessment conducted by the Self-Defense Test Ship during 1995. A preliminary design review was accomplished FY 1996. Development for Mk 86 and SSDS interfaces is in progress. A contract for two SPQ-9B Ordnance Alteration kits was awarded in June 1997. First Production Proof Kits (PPK) were delivered in late 1997, and Milestone III decision and Initial Operational Capability (IOC) are planned for FY 1999.
Developer/Manufacturer: Northrop Grumman Norden Systems, Melville, New York.

Aegis Multifunction Phased Array Radar

SPY-1 Aegis Multifunction Phased Array Radar
Description: The AN/SPY-1 radar system is the primary air and surface radar for the Aegis Combat System installed in the Ticonderoga (CG-47) and Arleigh Burke (DDG-51)-class warships. It is a multifunction, phased array radar capable of search, automatic detection, transition to track, tracking of air and surface targets, and missile engagement support. The third variant of this radar, known as the Littoral Warfare Radar, AN/SPY-1D(V), will improve the radar's capability against low-altitude, reduced radar cross-section targets in heavy clutter environments and in the presence of intense electronic countermeasures. The radar has also demonstrated a capability to detect and track theater ballistic missiles.
Program Status: Three versions of the radar have been delivered: CG-47 through CG-58 are equipped with the SPY-1A radar; CG-59 through CG-73, with the SPY-1B; and the DDG-51 class with the SPY-1D. The SPY-1D(V) littoral radar upgrade will supersede the SPY-1D in new-construction ships beginning in FY 1998.
Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin, Moorestown, New Jersey.

Anti-Submarine Warfare Combat System

Description: The AN/SQQ-89 ASW combat system suite provides Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG-7), Spruance (DD-963), Ticonderoga (CG-47), and Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) surface warships with an integrated undersea warfare detection, classification, display, and targeting capability. The system combines and processes all active sonar information, and processes and displays all SH-60B Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System (LAMPS) Mk III sensor data. The current system comprises following subsystems: The analog receivers of the AN/SQS-53A/B hull-mounted sonars are being upgraded to digital by the use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) processors, and are redesignated SQS-53D. Planned improvements through block upgrades include:
Program Status: New system acquisitions are only in DDG-51 procurements. Required modernization of existing systems for shallow-water littoral warfare environment are being accomplished by COTS adjunct processors and displays.
Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin, Bethesda, Maryland.

Thermal Imaging Sensor System

Description: The Thermal Imaging Sensor System (TISS) will provide surface ships with a day/night, high-resolution, infrared (IR) and visual imaging, and laser range-finder capability to augment existing optical and radar sensors, especially against small boats and floating mines. Twenty-four TISS units will be procured in a Non-Developmental Item (NDI) program. Units will be used in a rotating pool, transferred from ship to ship in operational theaters, much like the Navy Mast-Mounted Sight System. The program was expanded to include permanent installation.
Program Status: The program received Milestone II approval and contract award in October 1995. A single test unit was procured for test and evaluation in FY 1996. The Milestone III production decision was approved in December 1996 for five Low-Rate Initial Production (LRIP) units. Seven production units were procured in FY 1997. Initial Operational Capability (IOC) is anticipated in FY 1998.
Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, Huntington Beach, California.

Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System,
Low Frequency Active and Block Upgrades

Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System
Description: The SURTASS Block Upgrade expands the capabilities of this towed array passive acoustic data collection and analysis system installed on T-AGOS Monohull and SWATH-P ships. The upgrade adds the Reduced Diameter Array (RDA) and a Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) processing system to provide increased detection capability, more flexible and higher resolution spectrum analysis, and improved target bearing. A communications upgrade will provide additional Ultra-High Frequency Satellite Communications (UHFSATCOM) voice and data connectivity between T-AGOS and tactical platforms.
SURTASS Low Frequency Active (LFA) is the active adjunct to this towed array. LFA adds an active transmit array and handling system, power amplification and control systems, an active signal processing and display receive system, and an environmental analysis system to the SURTASS Upgrade. A prototype LFA system has been installed on a leased commercial vessel, Cory Chouest, and operated as an interim LFA asset pending delivery of T-AGOS-23 (SWATH-A), which will be equipped with LFA. New, smaller active-source technologies are also under investigation for potential applications in a Compact LFA (CLFA) system suitable for back-fitting into existing SURTASS ships. These upgrades provide improved shallow-water operational capability in support of littoral warfare. Open system architecture provides expandability and flexibility while lowering procurement and life cycle costs.
Program Status: In 1997, the Navy conducted the first sea trial of the SURTASS bi-static receive system. The SURTASS COTS processing was also adapted to surface, subsurface, and fixed sensors, and was integrated and deployed with surface and subsurface towed arrays on the USS Comte de Grasse (DD-974) and Portsmouth (SSN-707).
The SURTASS Block Upgrade is scheduled for completion on the final T-AGOS ships in mid-1998. T-AGOS-23 (SWATH-A) active/passive system delivery is scheduled for the first quarter of FY 1999. The SURTASS/LFA Multi-static Operational Assessment is scheduled for the second quarter of FY 1999, and Milestone III will occur in FY 2000.
Developer/Manufacturer: LFA Active/Passive Receive Processing: Raytheon Systems, Fullerton, California. LFA Transmit System: Lockheed Sanders, Manchester, New Hampshire. LFA/Twinline Technical Design: Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland. LFA Platform: Alpha Marine, Galliano, Louisiana.

Subsurface Sensors

Advanced Deployable System

Description: ADS is a deployable, short-term, large-area undersea surveillance system currently under development that is designed to detect nuclear-powered and quiet conventional (diesel-electric and air-independent propulsion) submarines operating in shallow-water littoral operating environments. The system will also have some capability to detect minelaying activity and to track surface contacts.
ADS will consist of a Processing and Analysis Segment (PAS), which is the processing hardware connected to the ADS sensor field by shore landing cable and contained in reusable, transportable vans; and the Underwater Segment (UWS), which is an expendable battery-powered, large-area field of passive undersea surveillance arrays. ADS will provide threat location information directly to tactical forces and a reliable maritime picture to the Joint Force Commander.
It will be forward deployed in a modular ISO-van configuration to allow on-scene forces to deploy it rapidly to areas where surveillance is needed to maintain undersea battlespace dominance. By operating in an unobserved fashion, ADS can provide indications and warning of hostile maritime activity prior to hostilities. Existing Undersea Surveillance System (USS) processing software and display formats will form the core of the ADS shore signal-processing segment. Commercial Off-The-Shelf and Non-Developmental Items (COTS/NDI) are being emphasized to maximize cost effectiveness.
Program Status : ADS is in the Program Definition and Risk Reduction (PD&RR) phase, with a Milestone II decision set for FY 1999. Existing tests with ADS-type arrays against challenging real-world diesel electric submarines and nuclear powered submarines have verified ADS' capability to perform in demanding littoral water regions. System production is programmed to begin in FY 2003.
Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin Federal Systems Division, Manassas, Virginia; Hughes Corporation, Mukilteo, Washington.

Acoustic Rapid COTS Insertion

submarine underway
Description: Acoustic Rapid Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Insertion (A-RCI) is a four-phase transformation of the existing sonar systems (AN/BSY-1, AN/BQQ-5, and AN/BQQ-6) from legacy systems to a more capable and flexible COTS/Open System Architecture (OSA)-based system and also provide the submarine force with a common sonar system. A single A-RCI Multi-Purpose Processor (MPP) has as much computing power as the entire SSN-688/688I submarine fleet and will allow algorithms previously beyond the reach of legacy processors. The use of COTS/OSA technologies and systems will enable rapid, annual updates to both software and hardware. COTS-based processors will allow computer power growth at a rate commensurate with the commercial industry.
Program Status : Phase I (November 1997) targeted Towed Array Processing; Phase II (March 2001) provides additional Towed and Hull Array software; Phase III (March 2001) replaces current Spherical Array DIMUS beamformer with a linear beamformer; and Phase IV (November 2000) upgrades HF sonar on late-generation, Improved Los Angeles-class submarines (SSN-688I). Each phase installs improved processing and workstations (point and click, trackballs, Windows). Navy research, development, test, and evaluation will continue to gather algorithms from surveillance, tactical and advanced R&D communities, perform laboratory and at-sea testing, and distribute upgrades annually.
Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin, Manassas, Virginia.

Submarine Combat System

Description: The AN/BSY-2 Submarine Combat System improves upon existing combat systems to meet the expanded operational requirements of the Seawolf (SSN-21)-class attack submarines. The BSY-2 is a fully integrated system used for sonar tracking, monitoring, and launch of all on-board weapons, including Mk 48 ADCAP/MOD ADCAP torpedoes, Tomahawk cruise missiles, and mines. It will provide improved overall response time, operability, tactical reconfiguration, firepower, and availability. Significant advancements include the hull-mounted Wide Aperture Array (WAA) for rapid localization of targets, more than 3.1 million unique software lines of code developed in Ada, a 92-processor node flexible architecture called "FLEXNET" using fiber-optic technology, and a fully integrated Interactive Electronic Technical Manual (IETM) supporting on-board and shore-based maintenance, operations, and training.
Program Status : Three systems were procured, with the first delivery to the USS Seawolf (SSN-21) in February 1995 and the second delivery to Connecticut (SSN-22) in October 1997. The BSY-2 system completed initial testing on Seawolf in summer 1996 and was delivered to the Navy in summer 1997. The third system will be installed on SSN-23, currently under construction by General Dynamics Electric Boat Corporation (see separate summary for the SSN-21 Program).
Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin, Syracuse, New York.

Submarine Combat Control System

Description: Two versions of CCS exist, Mk 1 and Mk 2. The latest upgrade to CCS Mk 1 is Program C4.2V1, which provides later Sturgeon (SSN-637) and Los Angeles (SSN-688)-class submarines with Tomahawk Block III capability as well as fleet-requested improvements to Mk 48 ADCAP torpedo and Towed Array Target Motion Analysis (TMA) operability. CCS Mk 2 D0 Block 1 is a two-phase development program that provides significant warfighting improvements to SSN-688-class submarines. The first phase, Block 1A/B, will provide shallow-water ADCAP torpedo capability as well as interfaces to the Joint Maritime Command Information System (JMCIS) and the Advanced Tomahawk Weapon Control System (ATWCS). (Both JMCIS and ATWCS are off-the-shelf products developed by other Navy program offices; see specific program summaries.) Program D0 Block 1C, planned for fleet introduction at the end of 1999, will incorporate Tomahawk Multiple Mission Missile (Tomahawk Block IV) capability as well as updates to JMCIS and ATWCS.
Program Status : The first Mk 2 Program D0 Block 1A/B was completed in June 1996. The Block 1A/B system successfully completed Operational Evaluation in third quarter FY 1997. Mk 2 Program D0 Block 1C Milestone II was completed in the third quarter FY 1996.
Developer/Manufacturer: Mk 1 Program C4.2V1: Lockheed Martin, Austin, Texas. Mk 2 Program D0 Block 1: Raytheon, Portsmouth, Rhode Island.

Fixed Distributed System-COTS

submarine underway
Description: FDS-C is a developmental, Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) version of the existing FDS system, a long-term, passive acoustic fixed surveillance system. Both consist of a series of arrays deployed on the ocean floor in deep-ocean areas, across straits and other chokepoints, or in strategic shallow-water littoral areas. Both also comprise two components: the Underwater Segment (UWS) that performs the detection, and the Shore Signal and Information Processing Segment (SSIPS) that handles the processing, display, and communication functions. FDS-C provides deep-water acoustic surveillance and evolved following the cancellation of the FDS program in 1993. FDS-C development will establish a much more cost-effective FDS-caliber deep-water system to meet the Fleet's ongoing needs for long-term undersea surveillance.
FDS-C will provide threat location information to tactical forces and contribute to the reliable maritime picture of the Joint Force Commander. It will be deployed in strategic locations where surveillance is needed to maintain undersea battlespace dominance. Due to its strategic positioning and long lifetime, FDS-C can provide indications and warning of hostile maritime activity prior to hostilities. Development of the all fiber-optic hydrophone passive array will increase system reliability and performance, and also reduce costs.
Program Status : The Engineering Development Model (EDM, designated FDS-1) is deployed and operational. System testing and evaluation is complete. The next generation of underwater systems (FDS-C) is in the design verification and source-selection stage of development.
Developers/Manufacturer: FDS UWS: Lucent, Greensboro, North Carolina; SSIPS: Lockheed Martin Federal Systems Division, Manassas, Virginia.

New Attack Submarine Electronic Support Measures

submarine bridge simulation
Description: Formerly called ASTECS - Advanced Submarine Tactical ESM Combat System - this RDT&E project will develop a new ESM system for the NSSN that will support operations in both the open-ocean environment and the complex littoral signals environment. It consists of signal receivers, displays, and advanced processing and analysis equipment. ESM provides detection, identification, and direction-finding for radar and communication signals emanating from ships, aircraft, submarines, and other emitters. ESM equipment is used by attack submarines to aid in self-protection, situation awareness, and intelligence-gathering for battle group support. Battle group dissemination of the information gathered from these signals will be provided via the ship's combat control system and communications equipment.
The NSSN ESM is a minimally manned ESM system providing several critical functions for radar and communications signals: detection, signal acquisition, identification, localization, and threat warning to the combat system. NSSN ESM system signal reception requires an antenna that can be located on the Photonics or ESM mast. NSSN ESM and the Integrated Electronics Mast (IEM) programs are companion programs that, when combined, will form an integrated submarine ESM suite. (See separate program summaries.) The NSSN ESM system is being considered for eventual backfit into Seawolf (SSN-21) and improved Los Angeles (SSN-688/688I)-class submarines.
Program Status : The NSSN ESM System entered Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) in October 1994, but the program was rescoped as a result of FY 1998 Program Objective Memorandum (POM 98) funding reductions. The Engineering Development Models are scheduled to undergo at-sea operational assessment in late FY 1999 or early FY 2000.
Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin, Syracuse, New York.

Sound Surveillance System

Description: SOSUS is a broad-area, fixed, passive undersea surveillance system that continues to provide a critical element of the Integrated Undersea Surveillance System (IUSS). It comprises a series of hydrophone sensors placed on the ocean floor and connected to shore facilities where the acoustic data are received, processed, and reviewed by an acoustic analyst. SOSUS reports surface ship activity and supports anti-submarine warfare command and tactical forces by detecting, classifying, tracking, and reporting submarine activity. Additionally, SOSUS provides support on a not-to-interfere basis on dual-use areas such as global warming, seismic activity, marine mammal research, and fisheries law enforcement.
Program Status : SOSUS has transitioned from single-beam paper displays to computer-based workstations for acoustic data analysis. By the end of FY 1998, the Shore Signal Information Processing Segment (SSIPS) and Surveillance Direction System (SDS) will have been installed at all shore facilities, giving SOSUS a common equipment configuration and significantly reducing system infrastructure support costs.
Developer/Manufacturer: Lucent, Greensboro, North Carolina. SSIPS/SDS: Lockheed Martin Federal Systems, Manassas, Virginia.

Submarine Masts and Antennas

Several important programs are underway to improve submarine masts and antennas and their associated systems.

Integrated ESM Mast
Description: The IEM is an RDT&E project that will provide extended communications and radar frequency Electronic Support Measures (ESM) coverage with the added ability to exploit complex communications and radar signals. The IEM is a cornerstone of the NSSN ESM system. It is also compatible with the improved High Probability of Intercept (HPI) Receiver on Los Angeles (SSN-688)-class submarines and supports the higher throughput rate and frequency and pulse agility capability required for operation in dense ESM signal environments. The IEM will have increased stealth and growth capability for visual, satellite communications (SATCOM receive-only), laser threat warning, and millimeter wave intercept.
Program Status : Engineering Development Models have been completed and will be delivered for integration into the NSSN ESM System in FY 1998.
Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon, Goleta, California.

Description: The SIAS is a research and development effort enabling submarines to communicate in networks ranging from Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) to Extremely High Frequency (EHF), including Super High Frequency (SHF). The program includes the High Data Rate (HDR) System, which includes dual-band EHF/SHF capability that will provide increased data rate communication with Navy and joint forces. The program also includes an improved BRA-34 antenna (OE-538/BRC), which will provide a significant upgrade in Demand Assigned Multiple Access (DAMA) capability.
Program Status : The first Rapid Prototype High Data Rate antenna is under construction and was scheduled to deliver in early 1998. Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) is scheduled to start in early 1998.
Developer/Manufacturer: High Data Rate Antenna: Raytheon, Goleta, California.

Description: The UMM is an integrated system for housing, erecting, and supporting submarine mast-mounted antennas and sensors. It replaces the build-in-place method of mast construction currently employed in U.S. submarines and will eliminate the need for hull-penetrating periscopes. The UMM will be used in the New Attack Submarine (NSSN) to accommodate eight mast-mounted sensors, including the Photonics imaging system, OE-538/BRC (improved AN/BRA-34) multi-purpose antenna, High Data Rate Antenna, Integrated ESM Mast, and Mission-Configurable Mast. The Photonics imaging system will provide advanced visual, infrared, TV, and other capabilities, increasing the data collection capability of a submarine in a surveillance mission, and making extensive use of image-enhancement techniques for target identification and classification. Information can easily be disseminated to battle group or joint forces. Capabilities such as Electronic Support Measures (ESM), Global Positioning System (GPS), and Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) reception will also be included. Designed to incorporate a maintenance and installation philosophy that minimizes all on-board alignment and testing, the UMM may be backfit on the Seawolf (SSN-21)- and improved Los Angeles (SSN-688I)-class submarines.
Program Status : Milestone I/II approval was granted in August 1994. The program is fully compliant with acquisition streamlining initiatives regarding performance specifications and reducing the number of military-unique documents in the system specification. An Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) phase contract was awarded in FY 1995, and development continues.
Developer/Manufacturer: Kollmorgen, Northampton, Massachusetts.

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