COMMAND, CONTROL, COMMUNICATIONS, COMPUTERS, AND INTELLIGENCE (C4I)
ACDS Advanced Combat Direction System
Description: The Advanced Combat Direction System is a centralized, automated command-and-control system, collecting and correlating combat information. It upgrades the Naval Tactical Data System (NTDS) for non-Aegis surface warships, aircraft carriers, and amphibious ships. A core component of non-Aegis combat systems, ACDS provides the capability to identify and classify targets, prioritize and conduct engagements, vector interceptor aircraft to targets, and exchange targeting information and engagement orders within the battle group and among different service components in the joint theater of operations.
The ACDS upgrade is divided into two phases, Block 0 and Block 1. The Block 0 interim system replaces obsolete NTDS computers and display consoles with modern equipment and incorporates both new and upgraded NTDS software. Block 1, currently completing development, will operate with the equipment provided under ACDS Block 0 while implementing significant improvements in software performance. The Block 1 upgrade will include modifiable doctrine, Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) and Link-16 for joint and allied interoperability, increased range and track capability, multisource identification, National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA)-based maps, and an embedded training capability. The upgrades will ensure that ACDS will continue to meet projected combat system requirements.
Program Status: ACDS Block 0 is deployed in 12 aircraft carriers, four Wasp (LHD-1)-class amphibious assault ships, and two Tarawa (LHA-1)-class ships. Systems integration, development, and operational testing continued into FY 1998. The first replacements by ACDS Block 1 began in FY 1996 with the USS Eisenhower (CVN-69) and Wasp (LHD-1). ACDS Block 1 is scheduled to achieve Milestone III in 1998, and is planned for installation in all aircraft carrier and amphibious assault ships, including the San Antonio (LPD-17) class.
Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon, San Diego, California. ACDS Block I development, performance, and integration testing: Raytheon, Naval Research and Development (NRaD), and Integrated Combat Systems Test Facility (ICSTF), Naval Surface Warfare Center Port Hueneme Division (NSWC PHD), Dam Neck, Virginia.
ADNS Automated Digital Network System
Description: The Automated Digital Network System (ADNS) provides timely data delivery service to and from all data user resources. The development of ADNS is based on the incorporation of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) and Government Off-The-Shelf (GOTS) hardware and software, such as Internet Protocol (IP) routers and Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switches.
ADNS comprises three functional elements: Integrated Network Manager (INM), Routing and Switching (R&S), and Channel Access Protocols (CAPs). ADNS will operate at the Secret High General Service (GENSER) classification. Initially, multiple security levels from unclassified to Top Secret Special Compartmented Information (SCI) will be enforced by cryptographic separation using the Network Encryption System (NES). In successive builds, the NES will be replaced by the Embedded INFOSEC Product (EIP).
Program Status: Three prototype systems are installed in the USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63), the USS Cowpens (CG-63), and the Naval Computer and Telecommunications Area-Master Station Eastern Pacific (NCTAMS EASTPAC). The system will also be installed in the USS Augusta (SSN-710). Further testing and development continued into FY 1998. Installations have occurred on 10 ships including three carriers and five shore stations to include the Naval Computer and Telecommunications Area-Master Stations. Two deploying carrier battle groups will receive ADNS installations in FY 1998 and out-years.
Developer/Manufacturer: Naval Command, Control, and Ocean Surveillance Center (NCCOSC) Research and Development (NRaD), San Diego, California; and Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR), Arlington, Virginia.
ATDL Link-11/22 Advanced Tactical Data Link Program
Description: The ATDL Link-11/22 Program will improve Link-11 connectivity and reliability into the next century and funds Link-22. Link-11 will be the common data link for all U.S. Navy and allied ships not equipped with Link-16. Link-22 is a member of the Joint Message Standard (TADIL-J) family. A large percentage of U.S. Link-capable aircraft and a very large segment of allied Link-capable forces are only Link-11 or Link-22 capable. This program will provide improvements in fleet support, training, equipment commonality, and interoperability. Major supported efforts are: NATO Improved Link-11 (NILE), Common Shipboard Data Terminal Set (CSDTS), Mobile Universal Link Translator System (MULTS), and Multiple Unit Link-11 Test and Operational Training System (MULTOTS).
Program Status: Delivery of initial CSDTS production units began in early FY 1998. Approximately 190 CSDTS installations are planned. Three MULTS are deployed with Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Naval Forces Europe (CINCUSNAVEUR), and five MULTOTS units are operated worldwide. NILE is a co-development program with seven NATO nations and is in the latter half of its research and development phase.
Developer/Manufacturer: GAC, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania; MIKROS, Princeton, New Jersey; Logicon, San Diego, California; NILE Program Management Office, Washington, D.C.; and Rockwell International, Dallas, Texas.
ATWCS Advanced Tomahawk Weapon Control System
Description: ATWCS is a significant upgrade to the current Tomahawk system, and will reduce overall reaction time, enhance training capabilities at all levels, reduce operator workload, and improve Tomahawk strike effectiveness. The ATWCS improvements will include hardware (including the use of the Navy's standard tactical computers), software, and firmware modifications that will introduce new capabilities, such as contingency-strike operations planning, embedded training at all levels, and a simplified man-machine interface. ATWCS incorporates an open systems architecture to provide for future growth, eliminates stand-alone Tomahawk desktop computers, and enhances command- and-control interoperability.
Program Status: Approval has been granted to enter Low-Rate Initial Production (LRIP).
Developer/Manufacturer: Hardware: Boeing, St. Louis, Missouri; Hughes, Fullerton, California. Software: Tiburon Systems Inc., San Jose, California; Southeastern Computers Consultants, Inc., Austin, Texas; Boeing, St. Louis, Missouri; Lockheed Martin, Austin, Texas; and Naval Surface Weapons Center, Dahlgren, Virginia.
Challenge Athena Commercial Wideband Satellite Communications Program
Description: Challenge Athena is a full-duplex, high data rate (1.544 Mbps) communications link (C/Ku wideband) capable of providing access to high-volume primary national imagery dissemination; intelligence data base transfers; video tele-conferencing, tele-medicine, and tele-training services; and various other computer data systems. Challenge Athena also supports tactical strike and Tomahawk mission planning, the Defense Information Support Network (DISN) Joint Interoperable Networks, including Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System (JWICS), Secret/Unclassified Internet Protocol Router Networks and Air Tasking Order/Mission Data Update (ATO/MDU) transmissions. The Challenge Athena system uses commercial satellite connectivity and Commercial Off-The-Shelf equipment and Non-Developmental Items (COTS/NDI) to augment existing, extremely overburdened military satellite communications systems.
Program Status: Current funding provides Challenge Athena terminals to approximately 40 Joint Task Force command-capable ships by FY 2005. Concurrent with this effort is the extension of medium data-rate connectivity to other accompanying surface warships, amphibious assault ships, and logistics support ships via a battle group "IT-21" (Information Technology for the 21st Century) wide-area network that will eventually provide these capabilities to all Navy ships. Future transponder leasing programmatics are being evaluated.
Developer/Manufacturer: Various COTS/NDI.
CHBDL-ST Common High Band Data Link-Shipboard Terminal
Description: The Common High Bandwidth Data Link-Shipboard Terminal provides a common data terminal for the receipt of signal and imagery intelligence data from remote sensors and the transmission of link and sensor control data to airborne platforms. CHBDL-ST will interface with shipboard processors of the Joint Services Imagery Processing System-Navy (JSIPS-N) and the Battle Group Passive Horizon Extension System-Surface Terminal (BGPHES-ST). CHBDL will process link data from Battle Group Passive Horizon Extension System (BGPHES) or Advanced Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance System (ATARS) aircraft configured with Modular Interoperable Data Link (MIDL) terminals.
Program Status: The Engineering Development Model (EDM) completed first operational deployment on board the USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) in October 1997. This Mediterranean deployment included joint operations with U.S. Air Force U-2 aircraft. First production system scheduled for 1998 installation on board the USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63).
Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin Tactical Systems, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Electronic Warfare Survivability Programs
Several important programs are underway to improve the Navy's electronic warfare capabilities.
AAR-47 MAWS Missile Approach Warning System
Description: Employed on helicopters and transport aircraft, the AN/AAR-47 Missile Approach Warning System (MAWS) warns of threat missile approach by detecting radiation associated with the rocket motor and automatically initiates flare ejection. Detection algorithms are used to discriminate against non-approaching radiation sources. The AAR-47 is a passive, missile-approach warning system consisting of four sensor assemblies housed in two or more sensor domes, a central processing unit, and a control indicator. The Warning System provides attacking missile declaration and sector direction finding and will be interfaced directly to the ALE-39/47 countermeasures dispenser. Without the AAR-47, helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft have no infrared missile attack detection system.
Program Status: Full-Rate Production (FRP) continues on the third production contract. The Microprocessor Upgrade Program is currently in the testing phase, and production will begin in the third quarter of FY 1998. Limited follow-on production will begin in the third quarter of FY 1999 through FY 2003.
Description: This countermeasures dispenser system is designed to employ electronic and infrared countermeasures according to a program developed and implemented by the aircrew. The AN/ALE-47 provides the aircrew with a "smart" countermeasures dispensing system, allowing the aircrew to optimize the countermeasures employed against anti-aircraft threats.
Program Status: This continuing joint program, with an Air Force lead, is in Full-Rate Production. The Navy will acquire 520 systems from FY 1998 to FY 2003.
Developer/Manufacturer: Tracor, Austin, Texas.
ALE-50 AAED Advanced Airborne Expendable Decoy
Description: This is an expendable towed decoy designed to provide countermeasures against semi-active radar-guided anti-aircraft threats, thereby increasing the survivability of tactical aircraft. The AN/ALE-50 decoy is deployed when required and cut free before landing.
Program Status: In production. The ALE-50 Multi-Platform Launch Controller (MPLC) is being modified to be compatible with the Integrated Defensive Electronic Countermeasures (IDECM) System.
Description: The AN/ALR-67 (V)3is a radar warning receiver (RWR) designed to meet Navy requirements through the year 2020. This is an upgrade to the ALR-67(V)2 system currently used on F/A-18 Hornet, F-14 Tomcat, and AV-8B Harrier aircraft. It will enable Navy and Marine Corps tactical aircraft to detect threat radar emissions, enhancing aircrew situational awareness and aircraft survivability.
Program Status: The V(3) program is currently in the Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) phase and undergoing developmental and operational testing. An Operational Assessment was completed with very positive results. The program will request a Milestone III decision for Low-Rate Initial Production (LRIP) in mid-1998. Operational Eveluation (OPEVAL) will commence in 1998 and continue through early 1999. If OPEVAL is successful, a Full-Rate Production (FRP) decision will occur in mid-1999.
Production quantities for FY 1998 through 2003 include the F/A-18C/D and the F/A-18E/F. The AN/ALR-67 (V)3 requirements for the F-14 Tomcat and the AV-8B Harrier aircraft are currently unfunded.
Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon Systems, Los Angeles, California.
AVR-2 Laser Warning System
Description: The AN/AVR-2 Laser Warning System (LWS) for helicopter and transport aircraft provides advance warning of laser energy directed against the aircraft, including both laser range finders and laser guidance systems, enabling the aircrew to take evasive action.
Program Status: In Full-Rate Production. The Navy plans to enter production for 34 systems in FY 1998.
Developer/Manufacturer: Hughes, Los Angeles, California.
GBS Global Broadcast Service
Description: Joint tactical operations require high-speed, multimedia communications, and information flow for deployed, in-transit, or garrisoned forces, including lowest-echelons and small users. The Global Broadcast Service (GBS) will augment and interface with other communications systems to provide a continuous, high-speed, one-way flow of high-volume information supporting routine operations, training and military exercises, special activities, crisis, situational awareness, weapons targeting, intelligence, and the transition to and conduct of operations short of nuclear war. GBS will provide the capability quickly to disseminate large information products to various joint- and small-user platforms. GBS will revolutionize communications with increased capacity, faster delivery of data, near-real-time receipt of imagery and data to the warfighter, and reduced over-subscription of current MILSATCOM systems.
Program Status: The GBS space segment will be implemented in three phases. Phase II is the Chief of Naval Operations-sponsored interim-GBS capability hosted on the last three UHF Follow-On (UFO) communications satellites. These satellites will be launched in FY 1998 and FY 1999. The Navy plans to field GBS user terminals on all surface and submarine platforms and most shore facilities. Deployment on various aircraft platforms is under study. The current fielding plan equips 100 percent of combatant ships and submarines and achieves 70 percent installation of all user receive terminals within the FY 1998-2002 Future Years Defense Plan (FYDP).
Developer/Manufacturer: Joint Program Office: U.S. Air Force, MILSATCOM Program Office, Space and Missile Systems Center. Phase II satellites: U.S. Navy SPAWAR, and Hughes Space and Communications, Los Angeles, California. Phase II broadcast management and receive suites: Hughes Electronics Division. Phase III satellites: to be determined. User receiver terminals: Various COTS/NDI. Broadcast Injection Terminals: U.S. Army, CECOM. Broadcast Management: U.S. Air Force, Electronic Systems Center. Information Management capabilities: Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA).
GFO Geophysical/Geodetic Satellite Follow-On
Description: The GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO) is a space-based altimeter that will provide the Fleet and oceanographic community with global, all-weather ocean topography, significant wave height, and ocean subsurface thermal structure. The GFO is a miniaturized version of the highly successful U.S. Navy GEOSAT. GFO represents significant advances in small satellite technology and is the first Defense Department launch under the Commercial Space Launch Act. Designed to downlink to the AN/SMQ-11, the GFO will provide tactical information to afloat naval forces on ocean and littoral currents, tides, fronts, and eddies, as well as synthetic bathy thermographs (BT) and significant wave heights.
Program Status: GFO is complete. Launch is scheduled for 1998.
Developer/Manufacturer: Prime: Ball Aerospace Division, Boulder, Colorado. Launch service: Orbital (formerly Orbital Sciences Corp), Dulles, Virginia. Altimeter: Raytheon Systems, St. Petersburg, Florida.
Description: This program supports Indications & Warning (I&W), surveillance, and targeting data requirements of operational commanders and targeting staffs across all warfare areas. It consists of broadcast receiver/ transponder equipment that provides target-quality contact data to tactical users. Integrated Broadcast Service (IBS) is a system-of-systems that will migrate the TRAP (Tactical Recovery of Aircraft and Personnel) Data Dissemination System (TDDS), Tactical Information Broadcast Service (TIBS), Tactical Reconnaissance Intelligence Exchange System (TRIXS), and TADIXS-B UHF broadcasts into an integrated service with a common format. IBS will also be capable of sending data via other communications paths, such as SHF, EHF, and GBS. Joint Tactical Terminal (JTT) will receive, decrypt, process, format, and distribute tactical data according to preset user-defined criteria across open-architecture equipment. JTT will be modular and will have the capability to receive/produce on all current tactical intelligence broadcasts (TDDS, TADIX-B, TIBS, and TRIXS). JTT will also be interoperable with the follow-on to these tactical broadcasts, the IBS.
Program Status: Plans are to transition to the Army-procured JTT beginning in FY 1999.
Developer/Manufacturer: JTT: Raytheon Systems, St. Petersburg, Florida.
JMCIS Joint Maritime Command Information System
Description: The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has designated the Joint Maritime Command Information System (JMCIS) the command-and-control migration system for the Navy. JMCIS provides afloat, ashore, joint, and allied commanders with a single integrated migration system for the Navy. JMCIS receives, processes, displays, and maintains geo-location on friendly, hostile, and neutral land, sea, and air forces. Additionally, JMCIS provides tactical decision aids (TDAs) for use by the warfighting commander in carrying out the operational mission. JMCIS is currently implemented in three variants: JMCIS Afloat, providing the shipboard command and control; JMCIS Ashore, providing functionality to major shore-based command centers; and JMCIS Tactical/Mobile, providing tactical command and control to fixed sites (Tactical Support Centers) and mobile components (Mobile Operations Control Centers, Mobile Integrated Command Facilities, and Mobile Ashore Support Terminals).
JMCIS implementation follows an evolutionary acquisition strategy in which JMCIS systems are modernized as technology matures and Commercial and Government Off-The-Shelf (COTS and GOTS) software systems are maximized. The most recent version of the software, JMCIS 3.1, has been developed to be compliant with the Defense Information Infrastructure Common Operating Environment (DII COE), the same core software as the Global Command and Control System (GCCS), the joint command-and-control system of record. For the first time, all JMCIS variants will be operating on the same COE, significantly reducing variant uniqueness. In FY 1998, JMCIS 3.1 will undergo a combined OPEVAL with representations from the afloat, ashore and tactical/mobile user communities (including the ships of USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) Carrier Battle Group, USS Essex (LHD-2) Amphibious Readiness Group, CINCPACFLT Headquarters, and various tactical/mobile users.) Upon successful completion of this OPEVAL, JMCIS 3.1 will be redesignated GCCS-Maritime, the Navy's implementation of GCCS.
Program Status: JMCIS Afloat, formerly referred to as the Navy Tactical Command System Afloat, has been installed on more than 300 ships and submarines throughout the Navy. Because of requirements to correct Year 2000 deficiencies, all current versions of JMCIS Afloat will be replaced with GCCS-M prior to the end of FY 1999.
JMCIS Ashore, formerly referred to as the Operations Support System (OSS), has been installed at 26 sites including the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, five Fleet Commanders-in-Chief (CinCs), Keflavik, Iceland, two Unified CinCs (USACOM and USPACOM), four Fleet High Level Terminals (FHLT), four Submarine Tactical Terminal (STT) sites, and various allied/NATO sites.
JMCIS Tactical/Mobile — Sixteen TSCs and eight MOCCs are operational worldwide. The program achieved Milestone IIIA for a JMCIS-based modernization of the TSC C4I systems in FY 1995, with a similar upgrade Milestone for the MOCCs completed in FY 1997. The Mobile Integrated Command Facility (MICFAC) and Mobile Ashore Support Terminal (MAST) mobile C4I suites have been integrated into the TSC Program. Five MICFACs and four MAST units were deployed during FY 1995 and 1996. Seven reserve MASTS have been contracted and will be delivered through FY 1999 to COMNAVSURFRESFOR to support Mobile Inshore Undersea Warfare (MIUW) missions. All mobile variants will deploy to support fleet and joint operations and exercises during FY 1998 and
Developer/Manufacturer: As a COTS- and GOTS-based system, several commercial companies and government agencies support JMCIS development and manufacturing.
JSIPS Joint Service Imagery Processing System
Description: JSIPS is a mobile ground-processing facility designed to receive and exploit infrared and electro-optical imagery from tactical airborne reconnaissance systems. Improvement options include a common radar processor for both tactical and theater radars, and an automated capability to insert and process mapping, charting, and geodesy products. The Navy system, JSIPS-N, will provide rapid and direct imagery from reconnaissance systems to mission planners, ensuring a quick and responsive source of intelligence. Growth capability is planned, with interoperability the key goal. The Navy envisions JSIPS installation on all aircraft carriers and amphibious assault ships. Requirements for command ships are being evaluated. JSIPS also offers the Marine Corps the opportunity to acquire a processing facility capable of deploying with Marine Air-Ground Task Forces (MAGTFs).
Program Status: Engineering Development Models were delivered in FY 1992 and Initial Operational Capability (IOC) was in FY 1995. JSIPS-N is in Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD)
during FY 1998.
Developer/Manufacturer: GDE Systems, San Diego, California; Raytheon Systems, Garland, Texas; and SAIC, Arlington, Virginia.
JTIDS Joint Tactical Information Distribution System
Description: This high-capacity digital information distribution system provides rapid, secure, jam-resistant (frequency hopping) communications, navigation, and identification capabilities appropriate for military use up to and including secret information. JTIDS provides Navy tactical aircraft and ships and Marine Corps units with crypto-secure, jam-resistant, and low-probability-of-exploitation tactical data and voice communication at a high data rate. JTIDS will also provide capabilities for common-grid navigation and automatic communications relay. JTIDS is a joint program directed by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) with integration into platforms including the Navy's aircraft carriers, surface warships, amphibious assault ships, submarines, F-14D Tomcat and E-2C Hawkeye aircraft, the Marine Corps Tactical Air Operations Centers (TAOCs) and Tactical Air Command Centers (TACCs), and various Air Force, Army, and British platforms and systems. Additionally, JTIDS has been identified as the preferred communications link for Theater Ballistic Missile Defense (TBMD) programs. JTIDS is the first planned implementation of the Joint Message Standard (TADIL-J) and will provide the single, real-time, joint data link network for information exchange among joint and combined forces for command and control of tactical operations. In addition to the United Kingdom, other NATO nations have agreed to participate in the JTIDS/Link-16 Program.
Program Status: The program successfully completed OPEVAL in August 1994 and was authorized to proceed to Full-Rate Production (FRP) in March 1995. JTIDS is being installed in selected ships and E-2C aircraft during FY 1998, and installation into other ships and aircraft will continue.
Developer/Manufacturer: GEC-Marconi Electronics Systems, Wayne, New Jersey; Rockwell-Collins Avionics, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; and Northrop Grumman, Bethpage, New York.
Lightweight Super High Frequency (SHF) Satellite Communications
Description: The Lightweight Super High Frequency (SHF) Satellite Communications (SATCOM) Terminal enables Navy ships to access the Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) for reliable, secure, beyond line-of-sight information exchange at medium-to-high data rates with other fleet units, fixed and mobile Joint and Allied Forces, and Navy C4I commands. Key services available via SHF are the Defense Information Systems Network (DISN), Global Command and Control System (GCCS), Joint Maritime Command Information System (JMCIS), Contingency Tactical Air Control System (TACS) Automated Planning System (CTAPS), Advanced Narrow Band Digital Voice Terminal (ANDVT), worldwide direct dial STU-III capability, PC-to-PC transfer via STU-III, voice teleconferencing, Tactical Data Information Exchange Systems (TADIXS), broadcast record message traffic, Manual Relay Center Modernization Program (MARCEMP), Tomahawk Mission Planning packages and updates, imagery support, DSN Telephone/ISDN access, Joint Deployable Intelligence Support Service (JDISS), Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System (JWICS), Unclassified-but-Sensitive Internet Protocol Router Network (NIPRNET), Secret Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNET), Video Information Exchange System (VIXS)/Video Teleconferencing (VTC), Streamlined Alternative Logistic Transmission System (SALTS), and Tactical Environmental Support System/Navy Integrated Tactical Environmental Subsystem (TESS/NITES).
Program Status: Numbered Fleet Commander flagships, aircraft carriers, flag-capable amphibious ships, and Surveillance Towed Array Sensor (SURTASS) platforms are configured with the AN/WSC-6(V)1 through AV/WSC-6(V)4 lightweight SHF SATCOM terminals. Beginning in FY 1998, the AN/WSC-6(V)4 is being modified to a standard AN/WSC-6(V)5 configuration to provide dual-carrier, air-cooled high-power amplifier and current technology controller capabilities for all flag-configured platforms. In FY 1997, the production contract was awarded for the AN/WSC-6A(V)7 SHF terminal for installation in several surface combatant and amphibious warships and other ship classes. The ultimate goal is to continue expanding SHF SATCOM capability to Combat Logistic Force ships and the Mine Countermeasures Support Ship through a combination of modifications to existing production SATCOM terminals and provision of additional AN/WSC-6(V) terminal variants matched in capability to individual ship mission requirements.
Developer/Manufacturer: Electro-Space, Inc., Dallas, Texas; Raytheon, Marlborough, Massachusetts; and various COTS/NDI vendors.
MIDS-LVT Multi-functional Information Distribution System-Low Volume Terminal
Description: MIDS-LVT is a multinational cooperative development program to design, develop, and produce a tactical information distribution system equivalent to Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS), but in a low-volume, lightweight, compact terminal designed for fighter aircraft, with potential applications in helicopters, ships, and ground sites. U.S. Navy procurement is targeted for F/A-18 Hornet aircraft and attack submarines. Other NATO participants are Germany, France, Spain, and Italy. As a Pre-Planned Product Improvement (P3I) of the JTIDS Class 2 Terminal, the MIDS-LVT will employ the Link-16 (TADIL-J) message standard of U.S. Navy/NATO publications. Although the MIDS-LVT terminal will have the same performance capabilities as the Class 2 JTIDS Terminal, its size and weight will be significantly reduced.
Program Status: The program entered Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) in December 1993. Participating nations have developed an acquisition strategy, with the United States as the program leader. It is expected to enter production in FY 1999.
Developer/Manufacturer: GEC Marconi Electronics Systems, Wayne, New Jersey; Rockwell-Collins Avionics, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; and Northrop Grumman, Bethpage, New York.
Description: The Mini-DAMA system will provide satellite channel efficiencies for aircraft and submarines by employing time division multiple access methods that have been achieved by surface ships and shore stations equipped with the larger version TD-1271 DAMA multiplexer. Mini-DAMA is being developed in two versions: the (V)1 variant is the submarine ship/shore application, and the (V)3 variant is the airborne aircraft/shore application.
Program Status: Open Systems Architecture (OSA) units were tested by the prime contractor and the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) in New London, Connecticut, and were assessed and evaluated by the Commander, Operational Test and Evaluation Force (COMOPTEVFOR) during FY 1997. RDT&E funding continued in FY 1997 and the assessment of the (V)3 by OPTEVFOR was completed. AN/USC-142(V) Mini-DAMA terminal will be acquired and installed on nuclear attack submarines, surface mine countermeasures ships, and new-construction guided missile destroyers.
Developer/Manufacturer: Titan Linkabit, San Diego, California.
Navy METOC Sensors (Space) Meteorological / Oceanographic Sensor Program
Description: Formerly called the DMSP-Navy Support/Defense Meteorology Satellite Program, Navy METOC Sensors (Space) is a critical but relatively small Navy space-based remote-sensing program that conducts research and development on Navy-unique or mission-critical sensors. This meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) sensor research is complementary to the Defense Meteorology Satellite Program (DMSP) and National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The Navy also develops, launches, and controls sensors/satellites when naval requirements cannot be satisfied by DMSP or by levering civil and foreign satellite
Program Status: In October 1997, the program commenced development of WINDSAT, the nation's first space-based passive microwave polarmetric radiometer, to provide ocean surface wind speed and direction, sea surface temperature, cloud liquid water, rain rate, snow/ice age/thickness, soil moisture, and vegetation index. The sensor is needed by October 2000 to support integration to the spacecraft; launch is planned for December 2001, which will support the mission need date. Development of the Airborne Polarmetric Microwave Imaging Radiometer (APMIR) for calibration and validation (cal/val) of the Air Force Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) and WINDSAT began in early FY 1998. The need date is FY 2001 to support first SSMIS mission, planned for late FY 2000 on DMSP-F16, after which the service will continue the ongoing program of cal/val of existing and on-orbit SSMI sensors. DMSP-29 was launched in April 1997. All four DMSP satellites currently in orbit require annual re-calibration, and new satellite launches require intensive validation and calibration effort. Current DMSP schedules show launch of F15 in FY 1999, F16 in FY 2000, F17 in FY 2002, and F18 in FY 2003.
Developer/Manufacturer: Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Washington, D.C. WINDSAT satellite bus and hardware: industry sources to be determined.
NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS)
Description: The NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based (two-satellite constellation) radio positioning system that provides users with worldwide, all-weather, three-dimensional positioning, velocity, and precise time data. Navy requirements include the integration of GPS in more than 400 surface ships and submarines and 4,500 aircraft. GPS continues to play an important role not only in navigation, but also in precision strike weapons, Navy surface fire support systems, ship intelligence systems, and complex communication systems that depend on the precise timing signal. In 1996, the President reaffirmed his commitment to offer GPS free of charge to all civilian and military users with nonaggressive intent, but he also directed the Department of Defense to protect the GPS signal used by U.S. forces and allies, and to deny GPS to hostile forces within an area of responsibility.
Program Status: GPS achieved Full Operational Capability (FOC) in July 1995. As of early FY 1998, all ships and submarines have GPS; aircraft integration is 30% complete and accelerating as the majority of all nonrecurring research and development is complete. The FY 1998 and out-year budgets continue to support equipping naval platforms with GPS capability.
Developer/Manufacturer: Rockwell-Collins, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; and Trimble Navigation, Sunnyvale California.
NESP Navy Extremely High Frequency Satellite Communications Program
Description: The Navy Extremely High Frequency (EHF) Satellite Communications (SATCOM) Program (NESP) AN/USC-38(V) is an anti-jam, low-probability-of-intercept (LPI) communications terminal designed to accommodate a wide variety of command-and-control and communications applications (e.g., secure voice, imagery, data, and fleet broadcast systems). As the Navy's portion of MILSTAR, NESP terminals are essential to providing protected tactical and strategic communications to the naval warfighter. The terminal operates within the EHF uplink and Super High Frequency (SHF) downlink radio frequency spectra. The terminals are interoperable with Army and Air Force terminals and will operate with MILSTAR satellites as well as EHF packages on board Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Follow-On (UFO) satellites 4-10, and with the Fleet Satellite (FLTSAT) EHF packages (FEP) installed on FLTSATs 7 and 8. A medium data rate (MDR) applique is being developed for incorporation into the NESP terminal in FY 1998 to allow MDR communications (4.8 Kbps-Ta) with MILSTAR II satellites. NESP has three configurations: Submarine (V)1, Ship (V)2, and Shore (V)3.
Program Status: NESP has initiated development of terminal modifications required to operate with an Interim Polar satellite with an EHF package. These terminal modifications will allow EHF communications to naval forces operating in regions above 65 degrees north commencing in late FY 1997. During FY 1997, key members of each naval battle group received low data rate (up to 2.4 Kbps) capability. All Tomahawk land-attack missile-capable surface warships and submarines will be outfitted with EHF SATCOM capability during FY 1998.
Description: NFCS is the enabler for surface land attack in the innovative Network-Centric Warfare concept of operations and is the foundation for the Land-Attack Destroyer (DD-21) Land-Attack Weapons Control/Mission Planning System. It automates shipboard land-attack battle management duties, and incorporates improved land-attack warfare weapons systems and battlefield digitization. NWCS will be consistent and interoperable with air defense and air control systems and procedures, and will provide the mission planning and fire support functions required to support the extended ranges provided by the improved 5"/62 gun and Vertical Gun for Advanced Ships (VGAS).
Program Status: The NFCS Program is scheduled for an FY 1999 start.
Developer/Manufacturer: To be determined.
NTCSS Naval Tactical Command Support System
Description: The Naval Tactical Command Support System is an integral part of the Joint Maritime Command Information System (JMCIS)/Global Command and Control System (GCCS), and Global Combat Support System (GCSS). NTCSS is the afloat and ashore system that migrates existing tactical support systems into the Defense Information Infrastructure Common Operating Environment (DII COE) technical architecture. Integrated with JMCIS/GCCS and GCSS, NTCSS provides the commander key maintenance, supply, medical, and administrative information through the migrated subsystems of the Shipboard Non-tactical Automated Program (SNAP), the Naval Aviation Logistics Command Management Information System (NALCOMIS), and the Maintenance
Resource Management System (MRMS). The NTCSS information will be used to complete the tactical picture for the commander.
Program Status: NTCSS is being fielded on ships, submarines, aviation intermediate maintenance activities, and aircraft squadrons. Aircraft squadron initial installation (NALCOMIS OMA subsystem of NTCSS) was completed in FY 1997. The SNAP III subsystem will be completed by FY 2005. NALCOMIS and MRMS IMA subsystems initial installations have been completed, with modernization efforts continuing through the FY 1998-2002 Future Years Defense Plan (FYDP).
Developer/Manufacturer: The Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) hardware is being procured through indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity government contracts. Engineering, integration, installation, and training will be accomplished through Navy and Defense Department activities.
OBU/OED Ocean Surveillance Information System Baseline Upgrade & Evolutionary Development
Description: The Ocean Surveillance Information System (OSIS) Baseline Upgrade (OBU) program is a shore-based intelligence system providing on-line, automated, near real-time, netted command-and-control support to the unified Commanders-in-Chief (CinC), joint task force commanders afloat and ashore, individual ships, and allies. It receives, processes, and disseminates timely all-source surveillance information on fixed and mobile targets of interest both afloat and ashore. OBU provides a multi-level secure system at message level, and automated event-by-event reporting. OBU is evolving toward a Joint Maritime Command Information System (JMCIS)-compliant system, the OSIS Evolutionary Development (OED) system. OED will employ JMCIS software and hardware (TAC-X series), and all functionality of the OBU system will be retained in the OED system.
Program Status: Seven U.S. and allied (United Kingdom, Japan, and Australia) operational OBU sites are active. U.S. sites include: Atlantic Intelligence Center (AIC) at USACOM Headquarters; Joint Intelligence Center-Pacific (JICPAC) at U.S. Pacific Command (USPACOM) Headquarters; JICPAC detachment (J-DET) Yokota Air Force Base, Japan; and Joint Analysis Center (JAC) Molesworth, United Kingdom. An OED site for the Republic of Korea Navy will be installed in 1999.
Developer/Manufacturer: Inter-National Research Institute, Arlington, Virginia; Litton Industries, McLean, Virginia; TRW, Fairfax, Virginia; Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center (NCCOSC) Research and Development (NRaD), San Diego, California, and Dahlgren, Virginia; and Mitsubishi and Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan (for the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force OBU only).
SABER Situational Awareness Beacon with Reply
Description: SABER provides near-real-time Situational Awareness (SA) and Friendly Identification (FID) through a distributed network of GPS-equipped beacons and a Command-and-Control (C2) node interface to the Global Command and Control System (GCCS). SABER beacons can report their position, course, speed, and FID to each other and the C2 node via UHF-Line-of-Sight (UHF-LOS) or Over-The-Horizon (OTH) SATCOM (5 Khz or 25 Khz). Reporting rates in SA mode are scaleable based on the number of beacons on a net and expected speed of reporting platform. For example, helicopters would normally have a faster reporting rate than ships. If SATCOM channels are not available, a UHF repeater on any high ground can be used to extend OTH. Planned upgrades to SABER include a messaging and relay capability. FID is achieved by a query and reply technique. The shooter transmits an "Intent To Shoot" (ITS) message to the network designating a target position and kill zone. If any beacon in the network determines that it is in the kill zone it will send a "Don't Shoot Me" (DSM) message to the shooter.
Program Status: SABER is transitioning from a technology demonstrated in the Combat ID-Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (CID-ACTD) to service procurement. During FY 1998, the Navy will conduct a competition for procurement of the product model or V(1) SABER beacons. A limited number of the original, V(0), beacons will be added to the inventory to support required demonstrations and contingency operations. The Navy expects to enter into Low-Rate Initial Production (LRIP) in FY 1999, with Full Rate Production in FY 2000. SABER is planned for all Navy ships, including landing craft and mine warfare platforms. Navy helicopters and tactical aircraft will receive modified SABER beacons designed to integrate with existing airframe capabilities, reducing additional hardware as much as possible. SABER V(1) beacons can also be installed in less than a day on merchant vessels called to support military operations and NATO or coalition forces as needed.
Developer/Manufacturer: V(0) prototypes: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), San Antonio, Texas. V(1): to be determined.
TACINTEL II+ Tactical Intelligence Information Exchange Subsystem, Phase II
Description: TACINTEL II is a computer-based message communication system for automatic receipt and transmission of Special Intelligence (SI) and Special Compartmented Information (SCI) messages geared primarily to contact reports and other tactically useful information. TACINTEL II+ extends the TACINTEL II system by implementing the Copernicus vision for joint C4I interoperability using open-architecture standards, and is thus a critical element in the Navy's evolving concept of Network-Centric Warfare. The full capability will include voice, message, and data transfer among SCI-capable ships and aircraft, with gateways to shore nodes. TACINTEL II+ is the lead program for implementing the Communications Support System (CSS).
Program Status: Rehosting of shore TACINTEL Link Control Facilities with new hardware is complete. Upgrading of ship hardware began in FY 1995 and completed in FY 1997. Incremental hardware and software upgrades scheduled through FY 1999 will provide the following capabilities:
Phase 1 — Upgrade ship/shore equipment to TAC-3 computers
Build 1 — Upgrade TACINTEL II software (contact data)
Build 2 — Add INTELNET functionality
Build 3 — Add record communications capability
Phase 2 — Complete transition to multimedia environment via CSS
Developer/Manufacturer: Scientific Research Corporation, Atlanta, Georgia.
TAMPS Tactical Automated Mission Planning System
Description: TAMPS is the Navy-Marine Corps standard unit-level aircraft mission planning system. It contains data for a wide variety of aviation platforms, including the F/A-18 Hornet, F-14 Tomcat, S-3 Viking, E-2 Hawkeye, and AH-1 Cobra. TAMPS is capable of loading the F/A-18 flight software via a Data Storage Unit (DSU) with route-of-flight data that include waypoints and sequential steering files, air-to-air radar presets, Tactical Aircraft Navigation Aid (TACAN) channel, and identification files. TAMPS enables the loading of independent overlays for aircraft software and bulk files for missile software, enabling the use of weapons such as the Stand-off Land Attack Missile (SLAM), Joint Stand-Off Weapon (JSOW), and the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM). TAMPS is also used for loading Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) files into aircraft flight software. TAMPS is interoperable with the Joint Maritime Command Information System (JMCIS).
Program Status: In production. TAMPS reached Initial Operational Capability (IOC) in 1986. A major upgrade, TAMPS 6.1, passed operational test and was introduced into the Fleet in FY 1998. TAMPS 6.2 is scheduled for release in fall 1998. The Joint Mission Planning segment and TAMPS 7.0 will commence development in FY 1998.
Developer/Manufacturer: TAMPS 6: Naval Air Warfare Center, Weapons Division, Point Mugu, California; Lockheed, Camarillo, California; TRW, Fairfax, Virginia; and Telos Systems Integration/C3, Herndon, Virginia.
Tomahawk Afloat Planning System
Description: The Tomahawk Afloat Planning System (APS) provides mission planning capability afloat and allows the battle group/battle force commanders to plan or modify rapidly Tomahawk Land-Attack Missile (TLAM) missions while at sea. This system is a portable version of the Navy's two theater mission planning centers.
Program Status: An APS Navy Program Decision Meeting (NPDM) was held on 31 August 1994, and approval was granted to enter Full-Rate Production (FRP, Milestone III). APS Operational Evaluation (OPEVAL) conducted in FY 1994. APS entered fleet service in 1996, and is being installed on aircraft carriers and at selected shore sites.
Developer/Manufacturer: TLAM Planning System Afloat: Boeing, St. Louis, Missouri. Digital Imagery Workstation Suite Afloat: GD&E Systems, Inc., San Diego, California. Tactical Data Distribution System: Tiburon Systems, Inc., San Jose, California.
UFO UHF Satellite Communications Follow-On
Description: The UHF Follow-On (UFO) satellite program provides eight satellites and one on-orbit spare to replace the current UHF satellite constellation - comprising Fleet Satellite (FLTSAT), Gapfiller, and Leased Satellite (LEASAT) systems - now nearing the end of its extended service life. UHF SATCOM, via UFO, provides Ultra High Frequency (UHF), Super High Frequency (SHF) Fleet Broadcast (FLTBCST) uplink only, and Extremely High Frequency (EHF) uplink and downlink capabilities for anti-jam communications in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans, and continental United States (CONUS). The EHF payload provides anti-jam telemetry tracking and control uplink capability, and modernizes the fleet broadcast uplink. Also, UFOs 8-10 will include a Global Broadcast System (GBS) payload. GBS uses direct broadcast technology at an extremely high data rate to many users via very small terminals.
Program Status: Nine satellites have been procured, six satellites have been launched and are operational. The launch of UFO 1 failed, but funds have been secured to support launch of UFO 10 to replace UFO 1. UFOs 4-10 incorporate an EHF anti-jam capability. The first launch of UFO with GBS capability is scheduled for March 1998. FY 1996 and out-year budgets support an incremental launch schedule, ensuring that the UFO constellation will be fully in place by FY 1999.
Developer/Manufacturer: U.S. Navy, SPAWAR PMW-146, with Hughes Space and Communications, Los Angeles, California.
ULQ-20 BGPHES-ST Battle Group Passive Horizon Extension System-Surface Terminal
Description: The Battle Group Passive Horizon Extension System-Surface Terminal (AN/ULQ-20) extends the battle group's line-of-sight radio horizon and enhances joint interoperability by controlling remote receivers in an aircraft's sensor payload to relay radio transmissions to the ship's surface terminal via the Common High Bandwidth Data Link (CHBDL). The primary aircraft employed for this task is the Navy's ES-3A Viking; BGPHES is also interoperable with the Air Force's U-2 reconnaissance aircraft.
Program Status: BGPHES Engineering Development Model (EDM) completed its initial deployment on board the USS John F. Kennedy (CV-66) in October 1997, operating with both the ES-3A and U-2. Installation of the first production system is scheduled for April 1998 in the USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63).